Tenses # Grammar For IELTS


You must be aware of what is verb. If not have a look at this.

Now, an action could be performed anytime. It could either be in present, past or future. So, to represent these verbs correctly, one must be aware of the time(tense) it is happening.

When the verb is referring to present time, it is said to be in PRESENT tense.

When the verb refers to the past time, it is said to be in PAST tense.

A verb that refers to the future time, is said to be in FUTURE tense.

kinds of tenses

kinds of tenses

Now, all these forms of tenses are further classified into-

  1. Simple present/past/future
  2. Present/past/future continuous
  3. Present/past/future Perfect
  4. Present/past/future Perfect Continuous

Let us begin by looking at the examples of each.

Simple present tense
I speak.
He comes.
They go.
We run.
Present continuous tense

I am speaking.
He is coming.
They are going.
We are running.
Present perfect tense

I have spoken.
He has come.
They  have gone.
We have run.
Present perfect continuous
I have been speaking.
He has been coming.
They have been going.
We have been running.
Simple past tense
I spoke.
He came.
They went.
We ran.
Past continuous tense
I was speaking.
He was coming.
They were going.
We were running.
Past perfect tense
I had spoke.
He had come.
They have gone.
We had run.
Past perfect continuous
I had been speaking.
He had been coming.
They have been going.
We had been running.
Simple future tense

I shall/will speak.
He shall/will come.
They will/shall go.
We will/shall run.
Future continuous tense

I shall/will be speaking.
He shall/will be coming.
They shall/will be going.
We shall/will be running.
Future perfect tense
I shall/will have spoken.
He shall/will have come.
They shall/will have gone.
We shall/will have run.
Future perfect continuous tense
I shall/will be speaking.
He shall/will be coming.
They shall/will be going.
We shall/will be running.


History Of Natural Gas # Reading Section

History Of Natural Gas

[A]Natural gas is nothing new. In fact, most of the natural gas that is brought out from under the ground is millions and millions of years old. However, it was not until recently that methods for obtaining this gas, bringing it to the surface, and putting it to use were developed.

[B]Before there was an understanding of what natural gas was, it posed a mystery to man. Sometimes, lightning strikes would ignite natural gas that was escaping from under the earth’s crust. This would create a fire coming from the earth, burning the natural gas as it seeped out from underground. These fires puzzled most early civilizations, and were the root of myth and superstition. One of the most famous of these flames was found in ancient Greece, on Mount Parnassus around 1000 B.C. A goat herdsman came across what looked like a ‘burning spring’, a flame rising from a fissure in the rock. The Greeks, believing it to be of divine origin, built a temple on the flame. This temple housed a priestess who was known as the Oracle of Delphi, giving out prophecies she claimed were inspired by the flame.

[C]These types of springs became prominent in the religions of India, Greece, and Persia. Unable to explain where these fires came from, they were often regarded as divine, or supernatural. It wasn’t until about 500 B.C. that the Chinese discovered the potential to use these fires to their advantage. Finding places where gas was seeping to the surface, the Chinese formed crude pipelines out of bamboo shoots to transport the gas, where it was used to boil sea water, separating the salt and making it palatable.

[D]Britain was the first country to commercialize the use of natural gas. Around 1785, natural gas produced from coal was used to light houses, as well as streetlights.

[E]Manufactured natural gas of this type (as opposed to naturally occurring gas) was first brought to the United States in 1816, when it was used to light the streets of Baltimore, Maryland. However, this manufactured gas was much less efficient, and less environmentally friendly, than modern natural gas that comes from underground.

[F]Naturally occurring natural gas was discovered and identified in America as early as 1626, when French explorers discovered Native Americans igniting gases that were seeping into and around Lake Erie. The American natural gas industry got its beginnings in this area. In 1859, Colonel Edwin Drake (a former railroad conductor who adopted the title ‘Colonel’ to impress the townspeople) dug the first well. Drake hit oil and natural gas at 69 feet below the surface of the earth.

[G]Most historians characterize this well as the beginning of the natural gas industry in America. A two-inch diameter pipeline was built, running 5 and ½ miles from the well to the village of Titusville, Pennsylvania. The construction of this pipeline proved that natural gas could be brought safely and relatively easily from its underground source to be used for practical purposes.

[H]In 1821, the first well specifically intended to obtain natural gas was dug in Fredonia, New York by William Hart. After noticing gas bubbles rising to the surface of a creek, Hart dug a 27-foot well to try and obtain a larger flow of gas to the surface. Hart is regarded by many as the ‘father of natural gas’ in America. Expanding on Hart’s work, the Fredonia Gas Light Company was eventually formed, becoming being the first American natural gas company.

[I]During most of the 19th century, natural gas was used almost exclusively as a source of light. Without a pipeline infrastructure, it was difficult to transport the gas very far, or into homes to be used for heating or cooking. Most of the natural gas produced in this era was manufactured from coal, rather than coming from a well. Near the end of the 19th century, with the advent of electricity, natural gas lights were converted to electric lights. This led producers of natural gas to look for new uses for their product.

[J]In 1885, Robert Bunsen invented what is now known as the Bunsen burner. He managed to create a device that mixed natural gas with air in the right proportions, creating a flame that could be safely used for cooking and heating. The invention of the Bunsen burner opened up new opportunities for the use of natural gas in America, and throughout the world. The invention of temperature-regulating thermostatic devices allowed for better use of the heating potential of natural gas, allowing the temperature of the flame to be adjusted and monitored.

Without any way to transport it effectively, natural gas discovered pre-WWII was usually just allowed to vent into the atmosphere, or burnt, when found alongside coal and oil, or simply left in the ground when found alone.

[K]One of the first major pipelines was constructed in 1891. This pipeline was 120 miles long, and carried natural gas from wells in central Indiana to the city of Chicago. However, this early pipeline was not very efficient at transporting natural gas. It wasn’t until the 1920s that significant effort was put into building a pipeline infrastructure. After World War II, new welding techniques, along with advances in pipe rolling and metallurgy, further improved pipeline reliability. This post-war pipeline construction boom lasted well into the ‘60s, and allowed for the construction of thousands of miles of pipeline in America.

[L]Once the transportation of natural gas was possible, new uses for natural gas were discovered. These included using natural gas to heat homes and operate appliances such as water heaters, ovens, and cooktops. Industry began to use natural gas in manufacturing and processing plants. Also, natural gas was used to heat boilers used to generate electricity. The expanded transportation infrastructure had made natural gas easy to obtain, and it was becoming an increasingly popular energy choice.


Do the following statements agree with the information given in reading passage 1?

In boxes 1-5 on your answer sheet, write

TRUE             if the statement agrees with the information.

FALSE           if the statement contradicts with the information.

NOT GIVEN  if there is no information on this.

  1. Natural gas is an invention of human beings.
  2. The divine energies in early periods produced flames, marking their presence.
  3. China was the first country to use the possibilities of fire as an asset.
  4. The only country to make a business out of natural gas was Britain.
  5. United States first used the natural gas in 1817.
  6. Native Americans kindled natural gas occurring around the Lake Erie during the 15th century.

questions 7-13

Reading passage 1 has ten paragraphs.

Given below are some facts that you can either comprehend/ are directly given in the paragraphs.

Match the paragraph number with the correct facts.

Write your answers in the answer sheet in boxes 7-13.

7. pipeline gets built between titusville and Pennsylvania.

8. Different ways to use natural gas get invented.

9.Bunsen Burner gets invented.

10. Electricity invention shifts the use of natural gas.

11. William Hart is declared the father of natural gas.

12.Natural Gas is wasted without the presence of pipeline.

13. Electricity generation with natural gas.


1. false

2. false

3. true

4. false

5. false

6. true

7. G

8. L

9. J

10. I

11. H