IELTS Vocabulary # Power And People

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History Today

The idea of taking back ‘control’ has come to dominate political debate in Britain. Much of the discussion has centred on the relationship between the United Kingdom and the European Union (EU). Indeed, the aim of achieving control substantially shaped the referendum on Britain’s membership of the EU. For the victorious Leave campaign, the promise of this kind of power resides in the restoration of sovereignty. Yet the analysis is based on a misunderstanding. While the future of Britain outside the EU is obviously hard to determine, one thing is certain: the possession of sovereignty does not guarantee the exercise of control.

The modern debate about sovereignty began with the French thinker Jean Bodin (1530-96). Having joined the Carmelite brotherhood as a monk in his early manhood, Bodin was released from his vows in 1549 and then opted to study law at the University of Toulouse. Much of his education involved attention to Roman law and included the humanistic study of classical texts in political and legal philosophy. It was out of these materials that Bodin developed his conception of supreme power.

In his most famous work, the Six Books of the Commonwealth, which originally appeared in French in 1576, Bodin presented a definition of sovereignty. He claimed that it was ‘the absolute and perpetual power of a commonwealth, which the Latins call maiestas [majesty]’. Later in his text, Bodin made clear that the Romans had yet other terms for sovereignty, summum imperium (ultimate authority) being conspicuous among them. Yet, while the Romans, like the Greeks and the Hebrews, had a conception of supreme authority, Bodin believed that they had not fully understood its implications. Above all, he insisted, they had failed to grasp that the highest power of command was indivisible. It could not be shared among competing powers in the commonwealth.

This meant in effect that, while a state might possess a mixed system of government, it could not be based on a system of ‘shared’ sovereignty. This insight has proved confusing to posterity, above all to admirers of the American constitution: since the United States can be seen as a mixed regime, surely its sovereignty is divided among the different organs of state? This thought was later used to characterize the European Union, too, which is similarly taken to exemplify the ‘pooling’ of sovereignty.

Let us now have a look at the meaning of the difficult words stated above.

dominatehave power and influence over.
substantiallyto a great or significant extent;for the most part; essentially.
referenduma general vote by the electorate on a single political question which has been referred to them for a direct decision.
victorioushaving won a victory; triumphant.
campaigna series of military operations intended to achieve a goal, confined to a particular area, or involving a specified type of fighting.
restorationthe action of returning something to a former owner, place, or condition.;the return of a monarch to a throne, a head of state to government, or a regime to power.
sovereigntysupreme power or authority;the authority of a state to govern itself or another state.
misunderstandinga failure to understand something correctly.;a disagreement or quarrel.
possessionthe state of having, owning, or controlling something.;something that is owned or possessed.
debatea formal discussion on a particular matter in a public meeting or legislative assembly, in which opposing arguments are put forward and which usually ends with a vote.;argue about (a subject), especially in a formal manner.
monka member of a religious community of men typically living under vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience.
legalpermitted by law.
conceptionthe action of conceiving a child or of one being conceived.;the forming or devising of a plan or idea.
posterityall future generations of people.;the descendants of a person.
regimea government, especially an authoritarian one.;a system or ordered way of doing things.
conspicuousclearly visible;attracting notice or attention.
characterizedescribe the distinctive nature or features of.;) be typical or characteristic of.


Plurals For IELTS Listening

No matter how easy they seem to be, plurals are very important for IELTS listening. Even more, it is quite obvious that you will get questions, answers to which will be plural. This is because IELTS is an English test and will surely check if you can listen for plurals.

There are no half points in IELTS, so even if you write the correct answer but forget the ‘s’ you will be marked wrong. For instance, if the answer is books and you wrote book, you will not get any marks for it. Let us now understand plurals in English.

When you want to change the number of a particular thing, you change them from singular to plural. There are two types of plural nouns –

  1. Regular – If by adding ‘s’ to the singular noun, you are able to change the noun from singular to plural, it is said to be a singular noun. For instance, plural of book is books.
  2. Irregular – The nouns which do not follow the rule of simply adding ‘s’ are known as irregular nouns. Example, plural of fish is fish.

Rules For Making Plural –

  1. Nouns that end in -ch, x, s, z or s-like sounds are made plural by adding es. Example-
    witch witches
    box boxes
    gas gases
    bus buses
  2. Nouns that end in a vowel + y take the letter s. Example – plural of boy is boys.
  3. Nouns that end in a consonant + y drop the y and take ies. Example – plural of baby is babies.
  4. Plurals of nouns that end in f or fe usually change the f sound to a v sound and add s or -es. Example- plural of knife is knives.


Irregular Plural Nouns

Irregular plural nouns are the ones, which don’t follow the general rule of merely adding a ‘s’. There are no easy ways to remember them, so they generally have to be memorized.


Latin-ate Plurals

Words ending in –is usually follow the original Latin form (basis/bases, crisis/crises) for reasons of euphony.

 addendum addenda
alga algae
alumnus alumni
amoeba  amoebae
 antenna antennae
bacterium bacteria
 cactus cacti
 curriculum curricula
 datum data
 fungus fungi
 genus genera
 larva larvae
 memorandum memoranda
radix radices
 referendum  referenda
 stigma  stigmas
 stratum  strata
 thesis  theses
 vortex  vortexes
 vertebra  vertebrae


 echo  echoes
embargo  embargoes
 tomato tomatoes
 hero  heroes
 torpedo torpedoes
 potato  potatoes

Phrasal Verbs # Food

Phrasal verb is a mix of a verb with a preposition. Today we will learn phrasal verbs related to food.

  1. Pick At – Pick at means you don’t eat a lot or you eat very little . Example- I am sick so I pick my food.
  2. Snack On – When you snack on something, you don’t eat a lot of something. For instance, you might snack on your burgers or other fast food. The food you snack on is not your dinner. Example – I am going to the theater and I think I will snack on some popcorn.
  3. Pig Out- Pig out means to eat a lot. Example- Yesterday, I went to a restaurant and pigged out.
  4. Polish Off- Polish off is when you have eaten everything. It is more than pigged out. Example – Anish polished off his Maggie.
  5. Live On- Live on means you eat a lot of something i.e you actually live on it. For instance, poor people don’t have much money, so they live on onion and chapatti.
  6. Cut Down – When you cut down on something it means you have reduced the amount of its consumption. Example – After the pleura effusion, he cut down on his alcohol.
  7. Order In- Order in means you order something i.e. you order people outside to get food from outside. Example- I ordered in the pizza yesterday.
  8. Eat Out- It means you go out to eat something. Example- Let us eat out, I am feeling lazy today.
  9. Dig In- Dig in means to eat. So, if you have ordered the food and everybody is still talking, you can say, dig in.


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