IELTS Vocabulary # Power And People

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History Today

The idea of taking back ‘control’ has come to dominate political debate in Britain. Much of the discussion has centred on the relationship between the United Kingdom and the European Union (EU). Indeed, the aim of achieving control substantially shaped the referendum on Britain’s membership of the EU. For the victorious Leave campaign, the promise of this kind of power resides in the restoration of sovereignty. Yet the analysis is based on a misunderstanding. While the future of Britain outside the EU is obviously hard to determine, one thing is certain: the possession of sovereignty does not guarantee the exercise of control.

The modern debate about sovereignty began with the French thinker Jean Bodin (1530-96). Having joined the Carmelite brotherhood as a monk in his early manhood, Bodin was released from his vows in 1549 and then opted to study law at the University of Toulouse. Much of his education involved attention to Roman law and included the humanistic study of classical texts in political and legal philosophy. It was out of these materials that Bodin developed his conception of supreme power.

In his most famous work, the Six Books of the Commonwealth, which originally appeared in French in 1576, Bodin presented a definition of sovereignty. He claimed that it was ‘the absolute and perpetual power of a commonwealth, which the Latins call maiestas [majesty]’. Later in his text, Bodin made clear that the Romans had yet other terms for sovereignty, summum imperium (ultimate authority) being conspicuous among them. Yet, while the Romans, like the Greeks and the Hebrews, had a conception of supreme authority, Bodin believed that they had not fully understood its implications. Above all, he insisted, they had failed to grasp that the highest power of command was indivisible. It could not be shared among competing powers in the commonwealth.

This meant in effect that, while a state might possess a mixed system of government, it could not be based on a system of ‘shared’ sovereignty. This insight has proved confusing to posterity, above all to admirers of the American constitution: since the United States can be seen as a mixed regime, surely its sovereignty is divided among the different organs of state? This thought was later used to characterize the European Union, too, which is similarly taken to exemplify the ‘pooling’ of sovereignty.

Let us now have a look at the meaning of the difficult words stated above.

WORDMEANING
dominatehave power and influence over.
substantiallyto a great or significant extent;for the most part; essentially.
referenduma general vote by the electorate on a single political question which has been referred to them for a direct decision.
victorioushaving won a victory; triumphant.
campaigna series of military operations intended to achieve a goal, confined to a particular area, or involving a specified type of fighting.
restorationthe action of returning something to a former owner, place, or condition.;the return of a monarch to a throne, a head of state to government, or a regime to power.
sovereigntysupreme power or authority;the authority of a state to govern itself or another state.
misunderstandinga failure to understand something correctly.;a disagreement or quarrel.
possessionthe state of having, owning, or controlling something.;something that is owned or possessed.
debatea formal discussion on a particular matter in a public meeting or legislative assembly, in which opposing arguments are put forward and which usually ends with a vote.;argue about (a subject), especially in a formal manner.
monka member of a religious community of men typically living under vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience.
legalpermitted by law.
conceptionthe action of conceiving a child or of one being conceived.;the forming or devising of a plan or idea.
posterityall future generations of people.;the descendants of a person.
regimea government, especially an authoritarian one.;a system or ordered way of doing things.
conspicuousclearly visible;attracting notice or attention.
characterizedescribe the distinctive nature or features of.;) be typical or characteristic of.

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Learning punctuation

punctuations are the most important component of English. They allow the reader to better understand what the writer is trying to say. For example, consider the following sentence-
She is a really nice girl said Avinash

When reading the sentence one cannot make out when does the reader need to give pauses or are there any.
One has correctly said that punctuations bring out the real emotions of the writer.

While giving the IELTS exam it is very important that you are able to tell clearly with words what you want to express!

There are different kinds of punctuations that are available and can be used in English. They are –

  1. Period
  2. Question mark
  3. Exclamation point
  4. Comma
  5. Semi colon
  6. Colon
  7. Parentheses
  8. Brackets
  9. Quotation marks
  10. Dash
  11. Hyphen
  12. Italics
  13. Ellipses
  14. Apostrophe

The better you know how to use then, more are the chances of getting a high band in IELTS. So, in the “Learn punctuation” series to come you will learn how to use the different punctuation mmarks to make sure you write effectively.

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The Period

The period or as most people know it “full stop” is used in the following cases –

  1. At the end of sentence
  2. Abbreviations
  3. Quotations
  4. With parentheses
  5. With comma

AT THE END OF SENTENCE

This is the most common use of period. It is used to end a declarative sentence, an imperative sentence and a sentence fragment.

Declarative sentence are the sentences that make a statement. For example-

All the students decided to go by train.

Imperative sentence are those that make a command. For example-

Get out of the room.

A sentence fragment is an incomplete sentence. For example-

Who is responsible for the chaos in the class? The students themselves.

In abbreviations

A period is used to indicate an abbreviation. Example-

Ms. Avishi is a great doctor.

EXCEPTIONS

  1. A sentence ending in an abbreviation does not need a second period. Example – The seat has reserved for the M.L.A.
  2. If a sentence ends with a abbreviation but requires a punctuation mark except period, the appropriate mark must be put. Example- where did avantika did her Ph.D.?

QUOTATIONS

When a sentence ends in quotation mark, a single period ends both quotation and the sentence. And this period is used inside the quotation mark. Example-

He said,”I can do anything that I want.”

When a sentence ends with a quotation mark but requires a final question mark, no period is used. For example- Did he really say,”I hate you”?

When the statement inside the quotation mark end with question mark, there is no need of a period. Example- Arun went on to ask,”Do you really want to do it?”

No matter the exclamation mark is required within a quotation mark or afterit, no period is used.

Example- What a terrible choice was made by ” the board “!

By now we know what Steve mean when he says, ” you are idiot!”

PARANTHESES

Period  may or may not be used inside a parentheses depending on the context. For example-

The economy of country in 1998 (see India Times Report, 1998) was at the verge of a steep slowdown.

The economy of country in 1998 was at the verge of a steep slowdown (see India Times Report,slowdown).

The economy of country in 1998 was at the verge of a steep slowdown.(see India Times Report, 1998.)

COMMAS

When a sentence includes an abbreviation that immediately precedes a comma, the period required in the abbreviation is retained.

Example – We will welcome Arun Rathore, M.A., to the class in next hour.

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Plurals For IELTS Listening

No matter how easy they seem to be, plurals are very important for IELTS listening. Even more, it is quite obvious that you will get questions, answers to which will be plural. This is because IELTS is an English test and will surely check if you can listen for plurals.

There are no half points in IELTS, so even if you write the correct answer but forget the ‘s’ you will be marked wrong. For instance, if the answer is books and you wrote book, you will not get any marks for it. Let us now understand plurals in English.

When you want to change the number of a particular thing, you change them from singular to plural. There are two types of plural nouns –

  1. Regular – If by adding ‘s’ to the singular noun, you are able to change the noun from singular to plural, it is said to be a singular noun. For instance, plural of book is books.
  2. Irregular – The nouns which do not follow the rule of simply adding ‘s’ are known as irregular nouns. Example, plural of fish is fish.

Rules For Making Plural –

  1. Nouns that end in -ch, x, s, z or s-like sounds are made plural by adding es. Example-
    witch witches
    box boxes
    gas gases
    bus buses
  2. Nouns that end in a vowel + y take the letter s. Example – plural of boy is boys.
  3. Nouns that end in a consonant + y drop the y and take ies. Example – plural of baby is babies.
  4. Plurals of nouns that end in f or fe usually change the f sound to a v sound and add s or -es. Example- plural of knife is knives.

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