Future Perfect Tense # Grammar For IELTS

Future Perfect Tense has the following two forms –

  • Will have done- This form of tense, is used as will have + past participle
    EXAMPLE-

    • You will have perfected the art of writing by the time you complete this assignment.
  • Be going to have done – This form of tense is used as am/is/are + going to have + past participle
    EXAMPLE-

    • You are going to have loads of money if you work hard and stop paying attention to money.

Future Perfect Tense is used as in the following ways –

To show the occurrence of an event before something in the future.

The Future Perfect expresses the idea that something will occur before another action in the future.
EXAMPLE-

  • I shall have written my novel by then.
  • By the end of this month, I will have worked here for six months.
To mark something that will continue up in the future as well
The Future Perfect to show that something will continue up until another action in the future. This is often done with the help of Non-Continuous Verbs and some non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs.
EXAMPLE-

  • By Monday, Alancrita is going to have had my novel for a month.
  • I will have been in UK for six months by the time I leave.

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Future Continuous Tense # Grammar For IELTS

Future continuous tense is used to talk about events that will happen continuously in the future. It has two forms –

  • will be doing- The form of future continuous in this case is –
    will be+present participle
  • be going to be doing – The form of future continuous in this case is –
    am/is/are + going to be + present participle

EXAMPLE-

  1. Are you going to be waiting for her when she arrives?
  2. Will you be waiting for her when she arrives?

Future Continuous Tense has the following uses –

To mark interruptions
Future Continuous is used to mark an interruption in the continuous event of future, by a shorter action in the future.
EXAMPLE-
I will be watching movies when she arrives.
I will be busy for the next two hours, call me only if an emergency happens.
In the above, the interruptions are marked by the simple present tense.
NOTE- Interruptions are in time clauses, and you cannot use future tenses in time clauses.
To represent parallel actions in the future
If future continuous is used in a statement with two sentences, it shows that both the sentences will be happening parallel.
EXAMPLE-
I am going to be studying and he is going to be reading.
To express the ambiance
Often future continuous is used to express the atmosphere of a particular place in the future.
EXAMPLE-
When we arrive at the party, everyone will be celebrating.
No future in the time clause
the Future Continuous cannot be used in clauses beginning with time expressions such as: when, while, before, after, by the time, as soon as, if, unless, etc. Instead of Future Continuous, Present Continuous is used.
EXAMPLE-
While I am going to be traveling, she will be studying. THIS STATEMENT IS WRONG.
While I am traveling, she will be studying. THIS IS THE CORRECT FORM.
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Immigrate, Emigrate And Migrate

Immigrate, Emigrate and Migrate are the three most often confused words. Often people believe that these three words have the same meaning, however, there sure is a difference. For now, let us understand the difference between the three words.

MIGRATION
In this case, migration is the noun form, whereas migrate is the verb. Migration has to do with seasonal movement or the movement that is not permanent. For example- animals migrate. There are some animals who migrate to different locations because of temperature and go back to the original place after the temperature changes.
A person who migrates is called migrant.
IMMIGRATION
Immigration is the noun and immigrate is the verb. It is the movement of people only and is permanent. A place where you immigrate, you live there forever.
EMIGRATION
Emigrate is the noun and emigrate is the verb. It is very similar to immigration in terms that it is movement and movement of people, also it is permanent. However, it is used when you leave a country forever.

PRACTICE QUESTIONS

  1. African elephants ________________ during dry seasons.
  2. I want to ____________ to United States Of America.( move there)
  3. My father left USA and moved to India. He is an ___________.
  4. I have got a job in Australia and I need to __________ there.
  5. Do you think animals who _____________ tend to be harmed because of global warming?

ANSWERS

  1. migrate
  2. immigrate
  3. emigrant
  4. migrate
  5. migrate

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IELTS Vocabulary # Power And People

The following article has been taken from historytoday.com. Read the article at –

History Today

The idea of taking back ‘control’ has come to dominate political debate in Britain. Much of the discussion has centred on the relationship between the United Kingdom and the European Union (EU). Indeed, the aim of achieving control substantially shaped the referendum on Britain’s membership of the EU. For the victorious Leave campaign, the promise of this kind of power resides in the restoration of sovereignty. Yet the analysis is based on a misunderstanding. While the future of Britain outside the EU is obviously hard to determine, one thing is certain: the possession of sovereignty does not guarantee the exercise of control.

The modern debate about sovereignty began with the French thinker Jean Bodin (1530-96). Having joined the Carmelite brotherhood as a monk in his early manhood, Bodin was released from his vows in 1549 and then opted to study law at the University of Toulouse. Much of his education involved attention to Roman law and included the humanistic study of classical texts in political and legal philosophy. It was out of these materials that Bodin developed his conception of supreme power.

In his most famous work, the Six Books of the Commonwealth, which originally appeared in French in 1576, Bodin presented a definition of sovereignty. He claimed that it was ‘the absolute and perpetual power of a commonwealth, which the Latins call maiestas [majesty]’. Later in his text, Bodin made clear that the Romans had yet other terms for sovereignty, summum imperium (ultimate authority) being conspicuous among them. Yet, while the Romans, like the Greeks and the Hebrews, had a conception of supreme authority, Bodin believed that they had not fully understood its implications. Above all, he insisted, they had failed to grasp that the highest power of command was indivisible. It could not be shared among competing powers in the commonwealth.

This meant in effect that, while a state might possess a mixed system of government, it could not be based on a system of ‘shared’ sovereignty. This insight has proved confusing to posterity, above all to admirers of the American constitution: since the United States can be seen as a mixed regime, surely its sovereignty is divided among the different organs of state? This thought was later used to characterize the European Union, too, which is similarly taken to exemplify the ‘pooling’ of sovereignty.

Let us now have a look at the meaning of the difficult words stated above.

WORDMEANING
dominatehave power and influence over.
substantiallyto a great or significant extent;for the most part; essentially.
referenduma general vote by the electorate on a single political question which has been referred to them for a direct decision.
victorioushaving won a victory; triumphant.
campaigna series of military operations intended to achieve a goal, confined to a particular area, or involving a specified type of fighting.
restorationthe action of returning something to a former owner, place, or condition.;the return of a monarch to a throne, a head of state to government, or a regime to power.
sovereigntysupreme power or authority;the authority of a state to govern itself or another state.
misunderstandinga failure to understand something correctly.;a disagreement or quarrel.
possessionthe state of having, owning, or controlling something.;something that is owned or possessed.
debatea formal discussion on a particular matter in a public meeting or legislative assembly, in which opposing arguments are put forward and which usually ends with a vote.;argue about (a subject), especially in a formal manner.
monka member of a religious community of men typically living under vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience.
legalpermitted by law.
conceptionthe action of conceiving a child or of one being conceived.;the forming or devising of a plan or idea.
posterityall future generations of people.;the descendants of a person.
regimea government, especially an authoritarian one.;a system or ordered way of doing things.
conspicuousclearly visible;attracting notice or attention.
characterizedescribe the distinctive nature or features of.;) be typical or characteristic of.

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