IELTS Vocabulary # Power And People

The following article has been taken from Read the article at –

History Today

The idea of taking back ‘control’ has come to dominate political debate in Britain. Much of the discussion has centred on the relationship between the United Kingdom and the European Union (EU). Indeed, the aim of achieving control substantially shaped the referendum on Britain’s membership of the EU. For the victorious Leave campaign, the promise of this kind of power resides in the restoration of sovereignty. Yet the analysis is based on a misunderstanding. While the future of Britain outside the EU is obviously hard to determine, one thing is certain: the possession of sovereignty does not guarantee the exercise of control.

The modern debate about sovereignty began with the French thinker Jean Bodin (1530-96). Having joined the Carmelite brotherhood as a monk in his early manhood, Bodin was released from his vows in 1549 and then opted to study law at the University of Toulouse. Much of his education involved attention to Roman law and included the humanistic study of classical texts in political and legal philosophy. It was out of these materials that Bodin developed his conception of supreme power.

In his most famous work, the Six Books of the Commonwealth, which originally appeared in French in 1576, Bodin presented a definition of sovereignty. He claimed that it was ‘the absolute and perpetual power of a commonwealth, which the Latins call maiestas [majesty]’. Later in his text, Bodin made clear that the Romans had yet other terms for sovereignty, summum imperium (ultimate authority) being conspicuous among them. Yet, while the Romans, like the Greeks and the Hebrews, had a conception of supreme authority, Bodin believed that they had not fully understood its implications. Above all, he insisted, they had failed to grasp that the highest power of command was indivisible. It could not be shared among competing powers in the commonwealth.

This meant in effect that, while a state might possess a mixed system of government, it could not be based on a system of ‘shared’ sovereignty. This insight has proved confusing to posterity, above all to admirers of the American constitution: since the United States can be seen as a mixed regime, surely its sovereignty is divided among the different organs of state? This thought was later used to characterize the European Union, too, which is similarly taken to exemplify the ‘pooling’ of sovereignty.

Let us now have a look at the meaning of the difficult words stated above.

dominatehave power and influence over.
substantiallyto a great or significant extent;for the most part; essentially.
referenduma general vote by the electorate on a single political question which has been referred to them for a direct decision.
victorioushaving won a victory; triumphant.
campaigna series of military operations intended to achieve a goal, confined to a particular area, or involving a specified type of fighting.
restorationthe action of returning something to a former owner, place, or condition.;the return of a monarch to a throne, a head of state to government, or a regime to power.
sovereigntysupreme power or authority;the authority of a state to govern itself or another state.
misunderstandinga failure to understand something correctly.;a disagreement or quarrel.
possessionthe state of having, owning, or controlling something.;something that is owned or possessed.
debatea formal discussion on a particular matter in a public meeting or legislative assembly, in which opposing arguments are put forward and which usually ends with a vote.;argue about (a subject), especially in a formal manner.
monka member of a religious community of men typically living under vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience.
legalpermitted by law.
conceptionthe action of conceiving a child or of one being conceived.;the forming or devising of a plan or idea.
posterityall future generations of people.;the descendants of a person.
regimea government, especially an authoritarian one.;a system or ordered way of doing things.
conspicuousclearly visible;attracting notice or attention.
characterizedescribe the distinctive nature or features of.;) be typical or characteristic of.


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IELTS Listening Sample Questions # Spouse


The below audio has been taken from BBC 6 minutes learning English. The audio talks about the fact that most people don’t have a clue about their spouse income.

You can download the audio from the given link – AUDIO

Answer the following questions in NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS

  1. “Sharing the cost of something” has a phrasal meaning in the audio. What is it?What percentage of married couples don’t know exactly what their spouse earns?
  2. There is situation when a bank lends you money to buy a house. What word does the speaker uses in audio for it?
  3. The speaker uses a phrase for “physical money”. What is it?
  4. Who is the person who does not like spending money?
  5. The speaker uses a word to refer to the money you have available for something and have a plan to use it? What is it?
  6. What phrase has been used to mean that you accept that you have different opinions?


  1. go dutch
  2. 44%
  3. mortgage
  4. hard cash
  5. cheapskate
  6. budget
  7. agree to differ

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IELTS Reading Sample # iPhone7

iPhone7 has been launched and there has been so much buzz about the phone that it is inevitable that one does not knows about it. In today’s reading section, we are going to look at a article that talk about the sales of Apple and how they increased with the coming of iPhone7. With this article, we hope to learn some vocabulary about business and how things actually work in the Business lifestyle. The article has been taken from –


iphone7 IELTS Band 7

U.S. wireless1 carriers Sprint and T-Mobile US said on Tuesday they received strong pre-orders2 for Apple’s iPhone 7, sending shares of the world’s most valuable listed company up 3 percent.

Sprint said pre-orders were up nearly four times, compared to last year. Pre-orders also rose nearly four times at T-Mobile, compared with its next most popular iPhone.

However, the companies did not disclose3 specific sales numbers. Pre-orders started on Friday.

Details about sales of the new iPhone are scarce4 after Apple announced last week it would not release weekend sales data, saying the number was more a reflection of supply than demand.

“While the iPhone 7 update is more revolutionary5 than evolutionary6, we believe investors7 could consider these strong early pre-order indications8 as being reflective9 of the impact10 of Apple’s significant11 iPhone installed12 base expansion13 over the past few years,” Stifel analyst Aaron Rakers said in a note.

Rival carriers AT&T and Verizon Communications were not immediately available for comment.

Apple’s shares14 were up 2.8 percent at $108.19 in morning trading15. Up to Monday’s close, they had fallen 2.1 percent since the iPhone 7 was launched on Wednesday.

1wirelessUsing radio, microwaves, etc. (as opposed to wires or cables) to transmit signals.
2pre-ordersPlace an order for (an item) before it is available for purchase.
3discloseMake (secret or new information) known.;allow (something hidden) to be seen.
4scarceInsufficient for the demand.
5revolutionaryInvolving or causing a complete or dramatic change.;engaged in or promoting political revolution.
6evolutionaryA gradual process in which something changes into a different and usually more complex or better form.
7investorsAn investor is any person who commits capital with the expectation of financial returns.
8indicationsA sign or piece of information that indicates something.;a symptom that suggests certain medical treatment is necessary.
9reflectivePproviding a reflection; capable of reflecting light or other radiation.;relating to or characterized by deep thought; thoughtful.
10impactThe action of one object coming forcibly into contact with another.;a marked effect or influence.
11significantSufficiently great or important to be worthy of attention; noteworthy.;having a particular meaning; indicative of something
12installedPlace or fix (equipment or machinery) in position ready for use.;
13expansionThe action of becoming larger or more extensive.
14sharesA part or portion of a larger amount which is divided among a number of people, or to which a number of people contribute.
15tradingThe action or activity of buying and selling goods and services.


Kolkata Guide # Improve Vocabulary

Kolkata is swaddled in multiple histories—19th century colonial grandeur, glamorous swinging sixties, violent Naxalite years, communist decades, and the slow arrival of 21st century glitter. It is a city of migrants and each community has imprinted its own culture onto a particular corner. Begin the weekend with a walk to understand the city’s multicultural past. Calcutta Walks offers a tour through old neighbourhoods of Central Kolkata inhabited by Chinese, Anglo Indians, Parsis, Jews, and Armenians respectively. One of the highlights of this walk is the hearty Chinese breakfast at Tiretta Bazaar, one of the stops along the tour. This is a true breakfast of champions as stalls offer assorted treats including fish ball soup and pork dumplings cooked by old Chinese mamas.

Old Guard

After this sampler, focus your attention on central Kolkata. No visit to the city is complete without a jaunt through Chowringhee, the erstwhile White Town of the British Raj. It’s also the name of an arterial road passing through the city centre, skirted by the sprawling green area called the Maidan on one side and magnificent colonial-era buildings on the other. Adorned in stucco-covered brick, many of these grand structures were residences of English officials and earned Kolkata the sobriquet of “City of Palaces.” A good point to begin any walk through Chowringhee is at the Esplanade Metro Station. It opens out into the hustle and bustle of shops lining the arcade leading up to The Oberoi Grand hotel or simply The Grand, the undisputed Grande Dame of the neighbourhood. Walk in through its gates to admire its elegant interiors and have a cup of tea or a glass of bubbly at their stylish coffee shop La Terrasse (15, Jawaharlal Nehru Road; 033 2249 2323; glass of wine from ₹700).

Shop Hop

Chaotic and colourful New Market is a five-minute walk southeast of The Grand. Officially named Sir Stuart Hogg Market, it was “new” over a century ago when it opened in 1874, but the name has stuck around. It is possible to find the most obscure things within the profusion of shops inside the market’s cheerful red Gothic-era facade. There are some items that every traveller must buy and these include silver jewellery from Tibetan-owned Chamba Lama, dense plum cake and chocolate brownies from legendary Jewish bakery Nahoum & Sons, and exquisite shawls from Pumposh Kashmir Shawl Emporium.


Eclectic Mix

From here, continue east for half a kilometre to Mirza Ghalib Street, also known as Free School Street, a place with a character as diverse as the people who live here. Novelist William Makepeace Thackeray was born here, in 1811, at house number 56B. Since 1884, the building has housed the Armenian College and Philanthropic Academy, founded to educate the children of Armenians who settled in the city. Historical value aside, Mirza Ghalib Street is a hub for budget travellers to the city with a higgledy-piggledy assortment of backpacker hotels, cheap lunch homes, and shops festooned with Christmas tinsel all year round. It has a myriad biryani joints including the absolutely unmissable Arsalan (119A, Intersection of Ripon Street and Mirza Ghalib Street; 033-30990567; special mutton biryani costs ₹260). The street is lined with second-hand book shops and roadside stalls with an eclectic collection. There are rare editions or personal notes, bookends, and inscriptions that make each book a collector’s item.

Music Masala

Mirza Ghalib Street is also great hunting ground for music lovers and collectors, with rare cassette tapes and piles of vinyl hoarded in street stalls. The records may not always be in mint condition, but it is thrilling to go through boxes and discover rare singles by Jimi Hendrix, bootlegs of Grateful Dead, or albums by the Allman Brothers Band. The key to a good bargain here is the ability to haggle. Among the many makeshift shops, Record Prince near Lindsay Street is a good place to dig up treasures. For those who want to do more than just listen, stroll into Braganza & Co. (56C, Mirza Ghalib Street) or J. Reynold & Co. (15, Mirza Ghalib Street). These music shops stock an enviable collection of guitars, drums, electric pianos, and more. Friendly, knowledgeable shop attendants can suggest an instrument that fits your level and encourage you to try them out. If you are lucky you might witness an impromptu jam session by musicians testing out the equipment.

Food Head

At the head of the street, where Mirza Ghalib meets Park Street, is the atmospheric restaurant Mocambo, once a cabaret and jazz venue. Today it is a charming family joint, still serving up mean European fare like devilled crab, fish Florentine, and baked Alaska. (25B, Park Street; 033-22654300; meal for two ₹1,600 approx).

Park Street is Kolkata’s approximation of downtown and there’s much to explore here. Smoky kathi roll shops like Kusum Snack Bar churn out an unbeatable combination of egg, chicken, and mutton kebabs rolled in flaky parathas (21, Karnani Mansion, 033-30280478, rolls start at ₹30). It stands cheek by jowl with old-school fine dining restaurants like Kwality that have been making a mean saag meat and pindi chhole for many decades (17, Park Street, 033-30990567, meal for two ₹900). Legendary dive bars like Olypub and Moulin Rouge jostle for space with a lodge for the Freemasons. The 18th-century South Park Street Cemeterywith elaborate cenotaphs dedicated to British soldiers and government officers who died here is right next to St Xavier’s Collegiate School for Boys and the adjoining college, among the city’s premier educational institutions. Books bought from Oxford Bookstore’s well-curated collection are best browsed across the road at Flurys, a European tea room and iconic Park Street landmark.

Park Present

While there are malls and modern bars aplenty in the city, there is nothing more atmospheric than a night out at Park Street where the cult of music reigns supreme. In the swinging sixties and seventies, Park Street was regarded a Mecca of western music in India and stars like Pam Craine, Louis Banks, and Usha Uthup set the stage on fire. One of the popular spots is Trincas, a quieter version of its former self. Yet, it continues to draw old-timers and travellers alike with occasional pub quizzes, comedy evenings, and jazz afternoons. It offers good quality continental and tandoori fare and plenty of cheap chilled beer (17, Park Street, 033-22297825; meal for two ₹1,200). Right next door, is the swish The Park hotel. Its tiny English pub, Someplace Else, is a beacon to live music in the city. There is a fabulous band playing here on any given day of the week, filling the air with riffs of rock ‘n’ roll, jazz, and blues.

End the night with a walk past Park Street’s shuttered shops, the road lined with yellow taxis waiting to take the last revellers home. Even in the late hours, the neon signs, fairy lights, and street lamps shine on. I don’t know if Kolkata is as charming as Ernest Hemingway’s Paris but, much like that city, it has a habit of staying with those who come here and remains “a moveable feast.”

swaddledwrap (someone, especially a baby) in garments or cloth.
grandeursplendor and impressiveness, especially of appearance or style.;high rank or social importance.
Naxalitea member of an armed revolutionary group advocating Maoist communism.
communista person who supports or believes in the principles of communism.
glittershine with a bright, shimmering, reflected light.
migrantsa worker who moves from place to place to do seasonal work.
imprintedimpress or stamp (a mark or outline) on a surface or body.
assortedof various sorts put together; miscellaneous.
dumplingsa small savory ball of dough (usually made with suet) that may be boiled, fried, or baked in a casserole.;a pudding consisting of apples or other fruit enclosed in a sweet dough and baked.
jaunta short excursion or journey for pleasure.
arteriala through road.
skirtedgo around or past the edge of.;be situated along or around the edge of.
sprawlingsit, lie, or fall with one's arms and legs spread out in an ungainly or awkward way.; spread out over a large area in an untidy or irregular way.
residencesa person's home; the place where someone lives.
sobriqueta person's nickname.
hustle and bustleA large amount of activity and work, usually in a noisy surrounding.
arcadea covered passageway with arches along one or both sides.
undisputednot disputed or called into question; accepted.
elegantpleasingly graceful and stylish in appearance or manner.
obscurenot discovered or known about; uncertain.
profusionan abundance or large quantity of something.
facadethe face of a building, especially the principal front that looks onto a street or open space.
exquisiteextremely beautiful and, typically, delicate.
higgledy-piggledyin confusion or disorder.
assortmenta miscellaneous collection of things or people.
festoonedadorn (a place) with ribbons, garlands, or other decorations.
tinsela form of decoration consisting of thin strips of shiny metal foil.; showy or superficial attractiveness or glamour.
myriada countless or extremely great number.
eclecticderiving ideas, style, or taste from a broad and diverse range of sources.
vinylsynthetic resin or plastic consisting of polyvinyl chloride or a related polymer, used especially for wallpapers and other covering materials and for phonograph records.
bargainan agreement between two or more parties as to what each party will do for the other.
haggledispute or bargain persistently, especially over the cost of something.
strollwalk in a leisurely way.
enviablearousing or likely to arouse envy.
impromptudone without being planned, organized, or rehearsed.
cabaretentertainment held in a nightclub or restaurant while the audience eats or drinks at tables.
devilledact as a junior assistant for a lawyer or other professional.
approximationa value or quantity that is nearly but not exactly correct.
exploretravel in or through (an unfamiliar country or area) in order to learn about or familiarize oneself with it.
culta system of religious veneration and devotion directed toward a particular figure or object.;a misplaced or excessive admiration for a particular person or thing.
continentalforming or belonging to a continent.;coming from or characteristic of mainland Europe.
revellersa person who is enjoying themselves in a lively and noisy way.
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