IELTS Writing task 2: Why are cities becoming overcrowded?
You should spend 40 minutes on this task.
Write about the following topic:
Cities are becoming overcrowded.
What are the causes of this situation, and what can be done to improve this situation?
Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant example from your own knowledge or experience.
Write at least 250 words.
Urbanization has become a global phenomenon. Metropolises all over the world are witnessing a dramatic rise in their populations. In this essay, I will outline the reasons behind this situation and propose some solutions to tackle it.
The main cause is high levels of migration from the countryside to cities. In developed nations, rural industries, ranging from agriculture to food production and livestock breeding, have been automated. As a result, fewer people are required to manage farmland and farm animals. Many wealthy country dwellers often head towards vibrant cities for a change. In a sharp contrast, mass migration to urban conurbations in developing nations is fuelled by frequent crop failures, unemployment and poor rural infrastructure.
Furthermore, millions of countrymen lack access to basic facilities such as healthcare, education, entertainment and transport etc. They seek a secure livelihood and higher standard of living for themselves and their children. Undoubtedly, mega cities have a developed infrastructure and offer a wide range of educational and employment opportunities. All these features attract young aspirants and job seekers to cities.
The unfettered growth of urban population exerts an enormous pressure on the available resources in cities. It also causes problems like high property prices, poor sanitation, congestion and pollution etc. Therefore, effective measures must be taken to curb the influx of people. Firstly, governments should plan policies for the overall development of the countryside. Secondly, the excessive dependence on farming should be reduced. For this, other employment opportunities must be generated in rural areas. This can be done by promoting traditional skills like pottery making, knitting, weaving and basketry etc. If people can make a decent living in the countryside, mass migration can be controlled.
To sum up, the causes of this trend are primarily to do with unemployment and underdeveloped facilities in the countryside. The best solution is to bridge the huge disparity between urban and rural areas.