Genome Project # Practice Reading

You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-13, which are based on Reading Passage 1 below.

[A]Soon after the Californian twins were born, their parents grew concerned: the children were developing slowly and had floppy muscle tone. A brain scan indicated that the boy might have cerebral palsy, but doctors were puzzled over his sister’s tremor and seizures. Batteries of tests failed to confirm diagnoses in either child, or treatment when the children were five with the drug-dopa — used for people with Parkinson’s disease — helped only for a while.

[B]It was only in 2010, when the twins reached the age of 14, that whole-genome sequencing ended their diagnostic odyssey. It identified a pair of mutations in a gene that encodes the enzyme sepiapterin reductase, which is involved in production of the neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin. Doctors modified the treatment to include serotonin; the boy’s mobility improved, and the girl was no longer plagued by sudden, breath-stealing spasms.

[C]Stories such as this one fuel ambitions to diagnose more quickly and accurately using genomic medicine. Indeed, tests that can probe certain disease-associated genes are increasingly becoming a diagnostic option. But such genetic tests often fail to give a diagnosis because they are too focused on a selection of known genes on one section of the genome. In cases like that of the twins, researchers or clinicians must go further and sample a person’s whole genetic sequence to find the disease-causing genes. Currently this is done only in rare cases — but a number of large-scale initiatives are poised to bring whole-genome analysis into routine medical care.

[D]The United Kingdom has taken a giant leap into genomic medicine with the 100,000 Genomes Project, which was launched in 2012 and has been personally backed by Prime Minister David Cameron. As part of the £300-million (US$467-million) initiative, 100,000 genomes from National Health Service (NHS) patients with cancer, rare disorders and infectious diseases will be sequenced by 2017. The project’s aims are to gain scientific insight by linking the disorders with precise genetic signatures; to obtain better diagnoses; to tailor treatments to individual patients; and, ultimately, to spur the development of a UK genomics industry.

“The goal is to make whole genomes part of regular NHS health records.”

[E]The state-funded, centralized UK health-care system is ideal for such population-based approaches in genomic medicine, says John Bell, who is a medical researcher at the University of Oxford, UK, and is also on the board of Genomics England, the NHS-owned company set up to run the project. The NHS already holds extensive clinical information on individuals, and pairing this with detailed genomic data will enable powerful insights into the links between medicine and genetics. Evidence that whole-genome interpretation can help in a wide range of disorders is mounting, and in the long term, Bell says, the goal is to make whole genomes part of regular NHS health records.

[F]But before that vision can be realized, there are several hurdles that the 100,000 Genomes Project must overcome. Aside from the logistical task of extracting and sequencing DNA from thousands of individuals, there is the problem of identifying which genome variations cause disease and which are harmless — a daunting, data-heavy and time-consuming process that will require a slew of specialized companies with dedicated software.

Considerable cohort

[G]Iceland was the first to launch a large-scale genomic analysis of its population. Many nations have followed suit with the explicit goal of linking health care and genomics. In the United States, the Precision Medicine Initiative plans to sequence the genomes of one million volunteers, and the Million Veteran Program is gearing up to do likewise with US military veterans. Similar projects are under way in Canada, Australia, Japan, South Korea, Singapore, Thailand, Kuwait, Qatar, Israel, Belgium, Luxembourg and Estonia.

[H]But the 100,000 Genomes Project is the venture gaining the most steam: it has already enrolled 3,500 people with rare diseases and 2,000 individuals with cancer, and will involve roughly 75,000 people altogether (see ‘The clinical genome’). People with rare diseases and their relatives will make up 50,000 of the final figure; 80% of rare diseases are inherited, so the genome of the affected person (usually a child) will be sequenced along with the genomes of two of their closest blood relatives. The remaining group of 25,000 will be composed of people with cancer, who will have their genome sequenced twice (the tumour DNA will be compared with that from a patient’s normal cells), giving the grand total of 100,000 genome sequences.

[I]The hope is that participants will benefit from clinical insights into their condition. But their genomes will also contribute knowledge of value to the entire patient community. One person’s prostate-cancer genome, for example, might reveal specific genetic patterns that a physician can compare against the Genomics England database. The physician can then find other people with similar patterns and learn which drugs and procedures worked best for them.

Questions 1-5

Choose the correct letter A, B, or C.

  1. What was the concern of the parents of the two kids?

A. The children had floppy disc.

B.The children were suffering from cerebral palsy.

C.The children had Parkinson’s disease.

2.What changes were observed in the girl at the age of 14?

A. She was showing hormone changes.

B.The girl was not having any breath-stealing spasms.

C. Her mobility was improved.

3.The reason behind the failure of genetic tests is?

A. The technology has still not improved much.

B. They focus 100,000 Genomes Project on a selection of known genes.

C. The persons who genetic structure is not being checked.

4.The country which launched the 100,000 Genomes Project is

A. United Kingdom

B.Australia

C.United States of America.

5.The main aim of the genome’s project is

A. to obtain better diagnoses

B. to spur the development of a UK genomics industry.

C. Both A and B

Questions 6-9

Do the following statements agree with the information given in the reading passage 3?

In boxes 6-9 on your answer sheet, write

TRUE             if the statement agrees with the information.

FALSE           if the statement contradicts with the information.

NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this

 

  1. Genomics England is a NHS owned company.
  2. With the data available with NHS, the genomes are part of regular NHS health records.
  3. The issue with 1000 genome project is identifying which genome variations cause disease and which are harmless.
  4. United Kingdom was the first country to launch a large-scale genomic analysis of its population.
  5. Precision Medicine Initiative is being carried out in United States.

 

Questions 11-13

Complete the summary below.

Write the answers in NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS in your answer sheet.

Genome project has already enrolled 3,500 people with rare diseases and 2,000 individuals with cancer, and will involve roughly 75,000 people altogether. Since the rare diseases are often inherited, genome of the affected person (usually a child) will be sequenced along with the genomes of two of their (11) _________________.  People suffering from cancer will have their genome sequenced (12) ___________. The hope is that participants will benefit from clinical insights into their condition. But their genomes will also contribute knowledge of value to the entire patient community. One person’s prostate-cancer genome might reveal a lot about the genetic patterns. This will in turn help in learning which (13) _____________ will work best for the person suffering from cancer.

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Topics For Speaking Part I

The first part of the speaking section, consist of general questions and lasts for 4-5 minutes. The questions asked are the ones that are usually related to the person, and are there, to  merely check, how well the person can express himself or herself in day to day situations. So, let us have a look at some of the topics asked in the first section of IELTS Speaking.

WORK

  • Where do you work?
  • Why did you choose that job?
  • Is it popular  in your country?
  • Do you like your job?
  • How well do you get along with your colleagues?
  • What was the first day at job like?
  • What responsibilities do you have at your job?
  • If given the chance, will you change your job? Why?

STUDY

  • What do you study?
  • Why did you choose that subject?
  • Is it a popular subject in your school?
  • Do you like that subject?
  • What kind of bond do you share with your subject mates?
  • How was the first day at your school like?
  • What are the main aspects of your subject?
  • Do you plan to getting a job in the same subject or you want to change your subject?

HOMETOWN

  • Where is your hometown?
  • Do you like your hometown?
  • How often do you visit your hometown?
  • What is your hometown like?
  • What are the places to visit in your hometown?
  • How can your home town be improved?
  • Has your home town changed with time?
  • How are the transportation facilities in your hometown?
  • Do you think your hometown is a good place for growing children?

HOME

  • Where is your home and of what kind?
  • Whom do you live with?
  • How many rooms are their in your home?
  • Do you have a single room or you share your room with someone?
  • How are the walls of your home decorated?
  • Is there anything you would like to change about your home?
  • Do you plan to live there in future?
  • What facilities are available near your home?
  • Do you plan to live there in the future?
  • What is your neighborhood like?
  • Do most people live in houses in your country?

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Family # Writing Practice

Have you found yourself in a situation when you had an idea in your head but you could not explain it? When you felt a choke in your neck, as if you want to say something but the word just doesn’t comes out and in that struggle you mumble different words which have no meaning all together. Well, this happens because you have a weak vocabulary or you don’t know how to use the words that you know. It might also be possible that you are not confident, but for now, we shall consider the previous two conditions i.e. either you have a weak vocabulary or you don’t know how and when to use those words.
So, be calm and delve into the new venture of learning words and using them in an exciting way.
In this first article, we will begin with something we all are part of and we all love, FAMILY.
Now, every topic has its own vocabulary( words related to it). And family is no different.
Check out the entire list of family vocabulary HERE.
Now, let us start using them.
About My family.
So, let us begin. When asked about your family, there are few things you have to tell.
1. Who do you live with?
Now, suppose you live with your parents and have a brother or a sister. You must write, I live with my mother, my father and a younger brother.
What have you done, you have used the verb- live, wrote the names of the people you live with. And that is all required to begin with.
2. Where do you live?
Now, there has to be some place where you are currently staying. State the name of the place. You must write, I live in Dehradun( now this place can be anywhere in the world).
3. Now, you need to elaborate.
Tell, more about your parents and your brother or sister.
My mum’s name is Catherine.
She is Indian and speaks Hindi and Kumaoni.
She is a home maker.
She is tall and a little plum, she’s got long brown hair, brown eyes.
My dad’s name is Philip.
He is an Indian as well.
He is tall and a little fat. He has got black hair and brown eyes.
He works in a Thermal Power Plant.
My brother is Mayank.
He is an engineering student and loves to read engineering books.
He is tall, and has got brown hair and eyes.


QUESTION TIME
Choose the correct option-

1.
  1. We lives in Dehradun.
  2. We live in Dehradun.
2.
  1. She speak Hindi and Kumaoni.
  2. She speaks Hindi and Kumaoni.
3.
  1. My mother is an indian.
  2. My mother is an Indian.
4.
  1. She is home maker.
  2. She is a home maker.
5.
  1. My father name is Philip.
  2. MY father’s name is Philip.
6.
  1. She has got long hair.
  2. She has got long hairs.
7.
  1. He works in Thermal power plant.
  2. He work in thermal power plant.

ANSWERS
1. 2
2. 2
3. 2
4. 2
5. 2
6. 1
7. 1

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Speed Writing # Practice Reading

Sometimes, certain things happen as if designed by a hidden hand, who’s working are not known to us. Well-crafted( to make something with special skills especially your hands in a very good way) places are suddenly over turned by unforeseen( that you did not expect to happen) events ( a thing that happens, especially something very important). Gifts(a thing that you give to somebody, especially in special ocassions), which one would have never imagined( to form a picture in your mind, of what something might be), land in your lap(top part of your legs that forms a flat surface when you are sitting down).
For me, writing a book on and called value was one such mysterious(difficult to understand or explain) gift. There was no intention(what you intend or plan to do) of ‘writing’ it to start with. It was more like a playful( full of fun, wanting to play) exercise ( an activity that you do to stay healthy). As the book unfolded( to be gradually made known), each session(a period of time spent doing a particular activity) of writing became a peaceful(quiet or calm; not worried in any way) joyful(causing people to be happy) experience(the knowledge and skill that you have gained through doing something for a period of time ). Every morning, one sat down and surrendered (to admit that you have been defeated and want to stop fighting ) to the flow of words pouring out (to express your feelings or give an account of something , especially after keeping them or it secretly )on to the pages of notebook bound beautifully(very well) in colourful hand-woven cloth. Every bit of writing was like a silent communion ( the state of sharing or exchanging thoughts and feelings) with a loving source.
The value book is an interweaving( put your facts, events, details etc. together to make a story or a closely connected whole) of randomly picked messages from two other books with the words that came to me using ‘speed writing’. I have enjoyed reading these two reference books( a book that contains facts and information, that you look at when you need to find out something particular) over the years. They are, a course in miracles( an act or event that does not follow the laws of nature and believed to be caused by God) and opening doors within. I have also enjoyed speed writing.
On the morning of October 3, 2007, my quest( a long search for something especially for some quality such as happiness) for a deeper understanding of values, my love for the two books mentioned above, experience with speed writing and a deeper surrender to the source, all came together. Work, began in a nice hand-bound notebook which had been gifted to me. Every morning some words would flow. The morning ritual (a series of actions that are always performed in the same way, especially as part of a religious ceremony ) ended on the last page of the notebook on June 28 2008.
Source: Life Positive

QUESTION TIME

Match the words in column A with their meaning in column B.
Make sure while doing this exercise you don’t cheat, or else the entire purpose of it will be lost.

COLUMN A COLUMN B
1. Well-crafted (i) that you did not expect to happen
2. Mysterious (ii) a period of time spent doing a particular activity
3. Imagine (iii) an activity that you do to stay healthy
4. Event (iv) causing people to be happy
5. Gifts (v) what you intend or plan to do
6. Unfolded (vi) to be gradually made known
7. Intention (vii) to make something with special skills especially your hand in a very good way
8. Peaceful (viii) something that give to somebody, especially on special ocassions
9. Joyful (ix) a thing that happens, especially something important
10.Lap (x) quiet or calm
11.Unforeseen (xi) full of fun
12.Playful (xii) difficult to understand or explain
13.Session (xiii) the top part of your legs that forms a flat surface when you are sitting down
14.Exercise (xiv) to form a picture in your mind of what something might be
15.Ritual (xv) to admit that you have been defeated and want to stop fighting
16.Miracles (xvi) a series of actions that are always performed in the same way, especially as part of a religious ceremony
17.Interweaving (xvii) a book that contains facts and information, that you look at when you need to find out something particular
18.Experience (xviii) the knowledge and skill that you have gained through doing something for a period of time
19.Pouring out (xix) very well
20.Communion (xx) put your facts, events, details etc. together to make a story or a closely connected whole
21.Beautifully (xxi) a long search for something especially for some quality such as happiness
22.Surrendered (xxii) ( an act or event that does not follow the laws of nature and believed to be caused by God
23.Quest (xiii) to express your feelings or give an account of something , especially after keeping them or it secretly
24.Reference Books (xxiv) the state of sharing or exchanging thoughts and feelings

ANSWERS

  1. vii
  2. xii
  3. xiv
  4. ix
  5. viii
  6. vi
  7. v
  8. x
  9. iv
  10. xiii
  11. i
  12. xi
  13. ii
  14. iii
  15. xvi
  16. xxii
  17. xx
  18. xviii
  19. xxiii
  20. xxiv
  21. xix
  22. xv
  23. xxi

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