Go Set A Watchman

Exactly 100 pages into Harper Lee’s Go Set a Watchman, the illusions of Jean Louise Finch and several generations of idealists are shattered when, arranging her father’s pile of reading material on a visit home from New York, Jean Louise discovers a pamphlet called “The Black Plague.” She picks it up, reads it all the way through, then takes it “by one of its corners … like she would hold a dead rat by the tail” and throws it in the garbage.
“Jean Louise,” her aunt says, in response to her indignation. “I don’t think you fully realize what’s been going on down here.”
It’s an awakening that’s not so much rude as cruel: Maycomb County, Alabama, is now a different world from the one she grew up in, and To Kill a Mockingbird’s Atticus Finch, the paragon of the legal profession, the father figure and steward of the nation’s conscience, is revealed to be frail and flawed. He is, at 72, a rheumatic and unrepentant segregationist who believes with complete conviction that the white race is superior. “Jean Louise, have you ever considered that you can’t have a set of backward people living among people advanced in one civilization and have a social Arcadia?” he asks late in the book, to her horror. “Do you want Negroes by the carload in the our schools and churches and theaters? Do you want them in our world?”
The article has been taken from “The New Yorker ”.


Illusion is something that deceives by producing a false or misleading projection of something. “illusion of … are shattered” means what they thought it to be, it has turned out to be something else.
Idealist here refers to the writers who treat subject imaginatively. So when the illusion of idealist are shattered, it means that the picture they had imagined is not true.
Pamphlet is a complete publication of about 80 pages stitched together and having a cover.
Indignation is a strong displeasure at something considered wrong or offensive. So, herein her aunt responds to her behavior of displeasure.
Paragon refers to someone of exceptional merit. So, “paragon of legal profession” means someone who is excellent in the legal profession.
Steward, here means a person who is in charge of something. “so steward of national conscience is a person responsible for the national conscience”.
Conscience refers to the inner sense of what is right and what is wrong. “the national conscience” means what according to the nation as a whole is right or wrong!
Frail, here means, morally weak and easily tempted. In this context, it means that the person who was responsible for the nation’s conscience was himself morally weak.
Flawed is used to refer to someone who has imperfections.
Rheumatic is a person with the disorder of the extremities or back, causing pain.
Unrepentant is a person who shows no shame about his/ her actions.
Segregationist is a person who supports the separation of the people depending on their caste, gender etc.
Conviction here means strong opinion or belief. Here it means that the person had a strong belief that white race is superior.
Carload refers to the number of people a car is carrying or it can carry. “Do you want Negroes by the carload in the our schools and churches and theaters?” means that do you as many Negros in the school as the car can carry.


Learn Vocabulary Better-2


There are 29 highlighted words in the passage below. Find out if you know their meaning and mark yourself on 29.
Then there’s the guest list glaze-daze. There are 165 newbie MPs from the ruling BJP party alone, all wide-eyed and bashful but pooh-poohed on the social register; there are the popular cabinet ministers, prominent but desperately trying to be inconspicuous; the allies are banished to their own states; the recently booted congress is reduced to a lame three-and-a half dozen Lok Sabha MPs; and then there’s the omnipresent prime minister who is suspicious of anything resembling Mughal court and of anyone remotely being extravagant. So, who do you invite to dinner?
Well, it’s simple as swapping the victorious with the losers. Power-worshipping Delhi is treacherous and cruel- you are as good as your last election or position- and everyone plays by the rules of the game. So, it’s the BJP’S Mr. Geniality, Arun Jaitley, and his clubby posse of chums who rule the red carpet. Jaitley has taken the shimmer from rivals P. Chidambram, Kapil SIbal and Salman Khurshid, while second rung ministers Jayant Sinha, Piyush Goel, Rudy Pratap Singh, Ravi Shankar Prasad etc have nudged out Subbirami Reddy, Anand Sharma, Abhishek Singhvi. But Jaitley and his crew have always been part of the gilt-edged power salon. His entourage include a chipper lawyer, a garrulous networker, a sprinkling of hacks, their wives; and their favorite, stomping ground ranges from a newspaper heiress’s drawing room to several tycoons’ soirees.
The passage has been taken from OUTLOOK MAGAZINE EDITION:12 JANUARY 2015

Vocabulary words

Vocabulary words


The word is made up of two words. First being glaze and the other daze. Glaze means dull or showing no feeling or emotion. Daze means in a confused state. So the word glaze-daze means that the guest list is probably confused and sitting in quite a dull way.
A newbie is a person who is new in doing something i.e. has less experience. The words is usually used with computers. In the sentence, it simply means that the 165 appointed MPs are new to the job.
This word has more meaning. The meaning used here is : having very less experience and so ready to believe, trust or accept something. In the paragraph, it simply means that the new MPs are open to new and different circumstances and challenges.
Bashful means shy and easily embarrassed; herein it means that the MPs are feeling quite shy(after all it is all new to them).
Pooh-pooh means to say that the idea or suggestion is not worth taking or even worth thinking. “pooh-poohed on the social register”, they are not liked by people in society.
Prominent has more than one meaning. The one that is used in the context means, important or well known. So, the cabinet ministers are well known.
Inconspicuous simply means not attracting attention. Herein it means that although the cabinet ministers are quite popular they don’t want to attract any more attention.
Allies means grouped together. Here it means that the parties that came together and formed allies(became one) are not allowed in their states.
Banished means to order somebody to leave a particular place. Like in here the allies are asked to leave their own states.
Omnipresent means present everywhere. In the context, it is used sarcastically.
Suspicious has similar but many other meaning. The one used here means, not willing or able to trust somebody or something. It is used when suspicious is used to refer to somebody/something. In reference to context it means that the prime minister tries to be everywhere because he does not trust something.
Resembling means to look like or similar to something or a person. “Resembling to Mughal court means looking like it”.
Remotely means to a very slight degree. It is often used in negative sentences. It also has other meanings as well.
Extravagant means to spend a lot more money that you earn or spending more than necessary. “Anyone remotely being extravagant”, means spending slightly more money.
Treacherous refers to anything that is dangerous and not safe. In the context it simply means that Delhi is dangerous and cruel….
Geniality means friendly and cheerful. “In the paragraph, the writer states that Arun Jaitley always seems friendly and cheerful.”
Clubby means friendly and sociable with fellow members of a group but not with outsiders.
Posse refers to a group of people who are similar in some way.
Chum means a friend. “clubby posse of chums” means the friends of Arun Jaitley who are similar to him and friendly inside but not sociable.
Shimmer means to shine with small shining wavering light. Herein it means Jaitley has taken the spot light from others.
Nudge means to gently push. “Nudged —— them out means they gently pushed them away.
Glit-edged means to have the best quality.
Power salon is made of two words; power and salon. Salon means a stylish business establishment. Arun Jaitley is part of “glit-edged power salon” means he is part of the best quality power establishment.
Entourage refers to a group of people who go with or assist an important person.
Chipper means alert. “Chipper lawyer” means an alert lawyer.
“Garrulous” refers to a person who talks a lot.
This is made of two words, sprinkling and hacks. Hacks means servant while sprinkling means scattering. So, it refers to his scattered servants.
Stomping although has many meanings. Here it means a kind of dance done with fast music.

Soirees refers to an evening party or a social gathering held for a particular purpose.
“Tycoon soirees” means an evening party of wealthy people.

Some say that your marks define how good or bad you are!! I say, marks don’t decide anything nor define anything, if you have the urge to learn new things, have the faith in you, and hope burning inside.


Learn Vocabulary Better-1

There are 21 highlighted words in the passage below. Find out if you know their meaning and mark yourself on 21.

Concerns over Ebola have escalated after the United States and Spain reported their first cases of the disease diagnosed within their borders. A traveler from Liberia, a west-African nation where the disease is rampant, was found to be harbouring the disease causing virus several days after arriving in Dallas. In the case of Spain, a hospital nurse involved in the care of a sick priest repatriated from Sierra Leone, another west-African nation where the outbreak is continuing, has caught the virus. Given Ebola’s sinister reputation, there have been strident demands in the US , including congress, for measures to reduce the risk of infection being brought into the country. In response. American officials have said that measures to screen arriving airline passengers would be put in place. As it is, countries where Ebola transmission is ongoing are expected to carry out exit screening of all persons departing from their airports, seaports and major land crossings. Using temperature monitoring systems and a questionnaire, the three west African nations of guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone, which are the worst affected, have checked about 36,000 airlines passengers in the past two months. Only 74 of them had fever and three displayed other worrisome symptoms, but none of those individuals turned out to have Ebola, says US health officials. It remains to be seen if screening passengers on arrival will actually reduce of risk of the virus getting in. those infected can take between two and 21 days to show symptoms of the disease, and, as happened with Liberian who was diagnosed in Dallas, that may not occur before they set out on their journey.
The obama administration has refused to entertain ideas of blocking the entry of those coming from the affected countries. If the US were to adopt such extreme steps, other nations will doubtless follow suit. As it is, the outbreak has been a colossal calamity for three of the world’s poorest nations, requiring a massive international response to the resulting humanitarian crisis. Isolating those countries for any extended period will only add to their hardships and hamper the ongoing international efforts to provide assistance. India and other countries untouched by Ebola must, however, be ready to response plans should an infected person turn up on their shores. The ability to quickly diagnose and isolate such cases, ensure rigorous infection control in healthcare settings, and track down and monitor an infected individual’s contact are essential. Nigeria and Senegal, west African countries that saw imported cases, were able to stop the virus from spiralling out of control. Good planning holds the key to getting the better of Ebola.
The passage has been taken from “The Hindu”, editorial section dated: Tuesday, October 9, 2014.

vocabulary words

vocabulary words


It means to make something either greater or worse or more serious etc. Herein the concerns over Ebola have escalated, meaning that the concerns have become more serious.
It means to exactly tell the reason of the disease or the problem. When it says that US and Spain claimed that they were the first to diagnose it within their borders, it means they were the first to find out the reason behind the disease.
It means to exist or spread everywhere in an uncontrollable way. The meaning is obvious, the disease is spreading in Liberia in a way that is not controllable.
Harbouring has many meanings. The one used here, means to contain something and allow it to develop. So, the traveler from Liberia was roaming about with the disease without getting it checked and therefore allowing it to develop within the body.
Priest is a person who is qualified to perform religious duties and ceremonies in Roman Catholic, Anglican and Orthodox Churches.(definition by Oxford Dictionary).
Repatriated means to bring or send back someday to their own country. Here, it means the nurse was brought back from Sierra Leone to her native country i.e. spain.
Sinister is anything that seems evil or devil. Here the outbreak of Ebola is said to be something quite devilish, after all it caused a lot of deaths.
Strident means being aggressive and determined. So, in the passage, it means that people are demanding measures to reduce the infection, very aggressively and with full of determination.
Departing means leaving a place. In the text, it means every person who is departing i.e. leaving from airports, seaports is being screened thoroughly.
A questionnaire is a collection of question that need to be answered by people so that some information can be collected. In the context, the West African countries are asking people different questions to get information from the passengers.
Worrisome is anything that makes you worry. So, when it says that some have showed worrisome symptoms, it means the symptoms have caused worry. It could be because they are quite serious.
Symptom is a sign that explains something bad. You can even understand it as, a change in the body or mind that shows you are not healthy. Herein it simply means that it takes 21 days to see any signs of the disease.
Administration has many meanings associated with it. The one that is used here is :” the government of a country”. So, in the text it means that the government of obama has refused to entertain any ideas of …. .
Colossal means extremely large. So, when it says “the outbreak has been a colossal calamity”, it means it has been extremely large.
Humanitarian is concerned with reducing suffering and improving conditions that people live in(definition from the oxford dictionary). When the writer says, “resulting humanitarian crisis”, it means the condition of people living has deteriorated.
Hardship refers to a situation that is tough usually because you don’t have the basic amenities i.e. water, clothes, food etc. Adding it to their hardship means it will make difficult things more difficult for them.
To hamper means, to prevent somebody to easily doing or achieving something. “isolating countries will hamper international efforts, means if isolation takes place, the efforts would either be stopped or it would become difficult to do what they are doing.
It simply means to help or support. So, the sentence,” hamper the ongoing effort to provide assistance”, means to create problems to either stop or make it difficult to provide help.
Ensure means to make sure that something definitely happens. “Ensure rigorous infection control means”, to make it sure that infection control measures definitely take place.
If something is done carefully and with lot of attention, it means it is done rigorously. In the context it means that the infection control measures must take place with lot of attention, after all the disease is going viral at a high speed.
Import has lot of meaning. The one used here is: to bring in from a foreign country. Herein it means, the cases of people who were not part of their country.
As used in here, spiralling means to increase rapidly. So, what it means is that the African countries that saw cases of imported people, were able to stop virus from increasing rapidly.

To those who got more than 17 correct, you already are good in vocabulary. Others don’t loose hope, even if you have 0 correct answers, remember, it is not the smartest who wins the war, the war is won by the one who works the hardest.

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Countable And Uncountable Nouns

The most common mistakes made my students in IELTS are in countable and uncountable nouns. So, for today let’s understand what countable and uncountable nouns are.

Countable nouns are the ones which can be counted in numbers. For example-: one pen, five pens etc.

  1. Countable nouns can be singular or plural.
  2. The use of indefinite article a/an is allowed with the countable nouns.
  3. When the countable noun is singular, it is accompanied with words like a/an/the/my/this. For example-:
    1. This is an orange.
    2. I want a pen.

    You cannot say I don’t want pen!!

  4. When the countable noun is plural, we can use it alone.For example-:
    1. I love oranges.
    2. Pens are easier to write with.
  5. We can use some and many with the countable nouns.For example-:

    1. I have got some euros.
    2. Have you got any pencils?
  6. We can use a few and many with countable nouns. For example-:
    1. I have got a few pens.
    2. I haven’t got many cars.

PEOPLE is a countable noun. PEOPLE is actually the plural of person. So, we can count it. For example-: there are three people in the room.

Uncountable nouns are the ones which cannot be counted in numbers. For example-: information. There cannot be one information or many informations.

  1. Uncountable nouns are treated as singular.
  2. We cannot use articles with uncountable nouns.

For eg. There cannot be an information or a news.
We can use the following withthe uncountable nouns-:

  1. some. For example-:You need to have some fresh air.
  2. any. For example-: I am listening to some kind of music.
  3. a little For example-: Add a little water to it.
  4. much For example-: I didn’t heard much of what they were saying.
  5. No. For example-: I had no tea for them.
  6. Plenty of For example-: They must have had plenty of patience to deal with him.

TIP FOR UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS: Uncountable nouns are also known as “mass nouns”. For example-:

Countable And Uncountable Nouns

Countable And Uncountable Nouns

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