IELTS Essay Sample Questions # Sleep Deprivation

People sleep less than before in many countries, causing sleep deprivation. Why do people sleep less? What effect does it have on individuals and society?

SAMPLE ANSWER

Sleeping patterns have drastically changed in the past semi-centennials. Increased work-load, competitiveness and the dramatically changing landscape has left many people awestruck and others tired. One day seems shorter, schedules are crammed and precious sleep hours are sacrificed – tossing, turning or working. This has led to sleep deprivation amongst individuals.

With sleep deprivation, more people are becoming stressed increasing the amount of anxiety, depression and sleeplessness among individuals. Medical directors at major universities have claimed economy as a major factor for losing sleep. There are many clocking more than average hours while there are others, left with no job at hand. In both scenarios, the stress is overwhelming.

Sleep Deprivation
Aside from financial anxieties, in just a decade, society has become more around-the clock and more complex. With the advent of the internet, cell-phones, we are increasingly becoming 24-7. People are able to be active at any time. This increased activeness has led to people ignoring their sleep patterns and working in odd hours as well.

Sleep-deprivation causes sleep loss- induced neuron behavioral effects which often go unrecognized. For example – attention deficiency disorders, problems in judgement and decision making, such as medical errors. Often the performance of employees is observed to decline in short term recall of working memory. Even further, any work requiring divergent thinking deteriorates with time for individuals.

Overall, the changing landscape of business and the coming of internet has changed the way people sleep often creating troubles, that go unseen. With large number of individuals competing to make a mark, the society in large has become workaholic, with times even causing performance degradation.

(269 words)

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What Do IELTS Band Mean?

What Do IELTS Band Mean:

Have you ever wondered what do IELTS band stand for? What do the world means when
it says, you have got band 7? And then what does it mean if they say you got a band 3.
Here, I am, decoding what goes behind these words.

BAND 9-: when I say you got a band 9, it means you have a accurate and fluent command of the language.

BAND 8-: It means you are a very good user. Although you do have good command of the language, you do make some
mistakes, may be in not so familiar situations.

BAND 7-: Band 7 refers to the fact that you are a good user. Although you can operate well using the language, but there are some occasional inaccuracies, misunderstandings and inappropriateness in some situations.

BAND 6-: A Band 6 means you can fairly use the language and understand it, usually in familiar situations.

BAND 5-: If your are a Band 5, it means you can go about and have basic communication in your field. Although, you are bound to make mistakes if taken to unfamiliar situations.

BAND 4-: A BAND 4 person has basic competency with the language in familiar situations.

BAND 3-: If you are BAND 3, you can understand and convey basic English words.
BAND 2-: You can not do a real communication in English if you are a BAND 2. You may use some isolated words.

BAND 1-: You essentially have no ability to use the language. May be very few words.

BAND 0-: You did not attended the test.

SO, go fellas and increase your band, and live the life you have dreamt of.

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The Quiz # Pharmaceutical Companies

The quiz given below is based on the reading passage PHARMACEUTICAL COMPANIES.

The table given has two columns, Column A and Column B. Column A consist of words from the passage and column B has their respective meanings. Your task is to match the word with the correct meaning.

 

 COLUMN A COLUMN B
 1.pharma  (i)fall suddenly, clumsily, or headlong
 2.volley  (ii)a person who conducts analysis
 3.criticism  (iii)a number of bullets, arrows, or other projectiles discharged at one time
 4.defense  (iv)express (an idea) in a concise or systematic way
 5.tumbled  (v)in poor health
 6.gouging  (vi)the action of defending from or resisting attack
 7.ailing  (vii)say or estimate that (a specified thing) will happen in the future or will be a consequence of something
 8.formulating  (viii)pharmaceutical companies collectively as a sector of industry
 9.earnings  (ix)disposed to take a favorable view of events or conditions and to expect the most favorable outcome
 10.predictive  (x) a large amount, as of money, exacted or extorted
 11.rhetoric  (xi)a particular attitude towards or way of regarding something; a point of view
 12.perspective  (xii)a collection or systems of formulas
 13.analyst  (xiii)gain deservedly in return for one’s behaviour or achievements
 14.well-calibrated  (xiv)a command or authorization to act in a particular way on a public issue given by the electorate to its representative
 15.optimistic  (xv)to determine,check, or rectify the graduation of (any instrument giving quantitative measurements)
 16.mandated  (xvi)the art of effective or persuasive speaking or writing, especially the exploitation of figures of speech and other compositional techniques
 17.formularies  (xvii)the expression of disapproval of someone or something on the basis of perceived faults or mistakes

ANSWERS

  1. viii
  2. iii
  3. xvii
  4. vi
  5. i
  6. x
  7. v
  8. iv
  9. xiii
  10. vii
  11. xvi
  12. xi
  13. ii
  14. xv
  15. ix
  16. xiv
  17. xii

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The Bright Side In America # Improve Vocabulary

Vocabulary is indeed a very important part of preparing for IELTS. If you are preparing for IELTS, then it is very important for you to understand the vocabulary and practice it well, is important to score well in the IELTS exam. This time we are looking at an article written on TIME magazine and understand it for the vocabulary.

Source – TIME

[PARA 1]

Charity–humanity’s most benevolent impulse–is a timeless and borderless virtue, dating at least to the dawn of religious teaching. Philanthropy as we understand it today, however, is a distinctly American phenomenon, inseparable from the nation that shaped it. From colonial leaders to modern billionaires like Buffett, Gates and Zuckerberg, the tradition of giving is woven into our national DNA.

[PARA 2]

Like so many of our social structures, the formal practice of giving money to aid society traces its origin to a Founding Father. Benjamin Franklin, an icon of individual industry and frugality even in his own day, understood that with the privilege of doing well came the price of doing good. When he died in 1790, Franklin thought to future generations, leaving in trust two gifts of 1,000 lb. of sterling silver. One to the city of Boston, the other to Philadelphia. Per his instruction, a portion of the money and its dividends could not be used for 200 years.

[PARA 3]

While Franklin’s gifts lay in wait, the tradition he established evolved alongside the young nation. After the Civil War, rapid industrialization concentrated unfathomable wealth in the hands of a few, creating a period of unprecedented inequality. In response, the steel magnate Andrew Carnegie pioneered scientific philanthropy, which sought to address the underlying causes of social ills, rather than their symptoms. In his lifetime, Carnegie gave away more than $350 million, the equivalent of some $9 billion today. His 1889 essay “Wealth”–now better known as Carnegie’s “The Gospel of Wealth”–effectively launched modern philanthropy by creating a model that the wealthy continue to follow.

[PARA 4]

Two decades later, John D. Rockefeller endowed the Rockefeller Foundation, which soon became the largest such “benevolent trust” in the world. Prior to World War II, the Rockefeller Foundation provided more foreign aid than the entire federal government.

[PARA 5]

Other, often far less well-known men and women have played a critical role in philanthropy’s evolution. One of my personal heroes is Julius Rosenwald, who made his fortune building Sears, Roebuck and Co. With his giving, Rosenwald helped construct more than 5,300 schools across the segregated South and opened classroom doors to a generation of African-American students, including Maya Angelou and Congressman John Lewis.

[PARA 6]

America’s philanthropic instinct is not limited to the rich. The nation’s history is rife with people like Oseola McCarty, a Mississippi washerwoman who gave away her life savings of $150,000 in 1995 to fund college scholarships for low-income students with promise.

[PARA 7]

What accounts for this culture of generosity? The answer is not solely altruistic. Incentives in the tax code, for one, encourage the well-off to give. And philanthropy has long helped improve the public image of everyone from robber barons to the new tech elite.

[PARA 8]

More troubling, however, are the foundational problems that make philanthropy so necessary. Just before his death, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. wrote, “Philanthropy is commendable, but it must not cause the philanthropist to overlook the circumstances of economic injustice which make philanthropy necessary.”

[PARA 9]

Indeed, King illuminates a central contradiction: philanthropy is an offspring of the market, conceived and sustained by returns on capital. Yet its most important responsibility is to help address the market’s imbalances and inadequacies.

[PARA 10]

Today institutional giving is undergoing a radical transformation. Priscilla Chan and Mark Zuckerberg made headlines for committing $45 billion in Facebook stock through a limited liability corporation. They’re among a host of emerging donors who are experimenting with approaches to giving away their fortunes outside the boundaries of traditional foundations.

[PARA 11]

Only 26 years ago, the last of Franklin’s gifts were finally made available, having multiplied to $6.5 million. More than the sum, they represent a broader principle. We are custodians of a public trust, even if our capital was derived from private enterprise. The most important obligation is ensuring that the system works more equally and more justly for more people. This belief is core to our national character. America’s greatest strength is not the fact of perfection, but rather the act of perfecting.

WORDMEANINGSYNONYMS
1. BenevolentWell-meaning and kindlyBenign, caring, compassionate, generous, humane, philanthropic
2. virtueMoral excellence; goodness; righteousnessAdvantage, character, ethic, excellence, faith, generosity, goodness, ideal, kindness, love, merit, morality, purity, quality, rectitude, righteousness, value
3. philanthropyAltruistic concern for human welfare and advancement, usually manifested by donations of money, property, or work to needy persons by endowment of institutions of learning and hospitals and by generosity to other socially useful purposes.Charity, generosity, alms, alms-giving, altruism, assistance, benefaction, beneficence, contribution, dole, donation, endowment, fund, relief
4. frugalityThe quality of being frugal, or prudent in saving; the lack of wastefulnessModeration, prudence, thrift, avarice, carefulness, conservation, economy, miserliness, niggardliness, parsimoniousness, parsimony, penuriousness, providence, saving, stinginess
5. waitstay where one is or delay action until a particular time or event:Interval, down, halt, downtime, hold, interim, rest, stay
6. unfathomableNot able to fathom or completely understand; incomprehensibleBoundless, immeasurable, infinite
7. unprecedentedWithout previous instance; never known or experiencedBizzare, extraordinary, fantastic, miraculous, new, remarkable, singular, uncommon, unheard- of, unique, unparalleled, unrivaled, unusual
8. endowedTo provide with a permanent fund or source of incomeBlessed. Enriched, equipped, graced, suppilied
9. segregatedRestricting to one group, especially exclusively on the basis of racial or ethnic membershipIsolated, restricted, excluded, separated, discriminative
10. rifeOf common or frequent occurrence; prevalent; in widespread existence, activity or useAbundant, alive, plentiful, popular, prevalent, rampant, replete, abounding, common, current, epidemic, extensive, frequent
11. generosityReadiness or liberality in givingGoodness, hospitality, kindness, largesse, unselfishness, alms-giving, altruism, beneficence
12. altruisticUnselfishly concerned or devoted to the welfare of othersCharitable, humanitarian, magnanimous, philanthropic, all heart, benevolent, big, bleeding heart, considerate, good scout
13. incentivesSomething that incites or tends to incite to action or greater effort as a reward offered for increased productivityEncouragement, enticement, impetus, motivation, reason, stimulus, allurement, bait, carrot, catalyst, come- on, provocation, stimulant, insistence, exhortation
14. robberA person who robs (steals)Bandit, burglar, con artist, crook, looter, marauder, mugger, pickpocket, pirate, raider, rustler, shoplifter, swindler, thief, thug, brigand, buccaneer, cardsharper, cheat, chiseler, desperado, despoiler, fence, forager, fraud, hijacker, housebreaker, prowler, punk, safecracker, pillager, plunderer, operator
15. baronsA member of the lowest grade of nobilityAristocrat, lord, peer
16. contradictionA statement or proposition that contradicts or denies another or itself and is logically incongruousConflict, difference, disagreement, discrepancy, dispute, inconsistency, confutation, contravention, defiance, denial, dissension, incongruity, negation, opposite, opposition
17. radicalOf or going to the root or origin; fundamentalProfound, basal, bottom, cardinal, constitutional, essential, native, natural, organic, original, primary, primitive, deep-seated, foundational, inherent, innate, intrinsic, meat-and-potatoes, primal
18. obligationSomething by which a person is bound or obliged to do certain things, and which arises out of a sense of duty or results from custom, law etc.Accountability, agreement bond, burden, commitment, constraint, contract, debt, duty, liability, necessity, need, promise, requirement, right, trust, understanding

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