IELTS Vocabulary # Power And People

The following article has been taken from historytoday.com. Read the article at –

History Today

The idea of taking back ‘control’ has come to dominate political debate in Britain. Much of the discussion has centred on the relationship between the United Kingdom and the European Union (EU). Indeed, the aim of achieving control substantially shaped the referendum on Britain’s membership of the EU. For the victorious Leave campaign, the promise of this kind of power resides in the restoration of sovereignty. Yet the analysis is based on a misunderstanding. While the future of Britain outside the EU is obviously hard to determine, one thing is certain: the possession of sovereignty does not guarantee the exercise of control.

The modern debate about sovereignty began with the French thinker Jean Bodin (1530-96). Having joined the Carmelite brotherhood as a monk in his early manhood, Bodin was released from his vows in 1549 and then opted to study law at the University of Toulouse. Much of his education involved attention to Roman law and included the humanistic study of classical texts in political and legal philosophy. It was out of these materials that Bodin developed his conception of supreme power.

In his most famous work, the Six Books of the Commonwealth, which originally appeared in French in 1576, Bodin presented a definition of sovereignty. He claimed that it was ‘the absolute and perpetual power of a commonwealth, which the Latins call maiestas [majesty]’. Later in his text, Bodin made clear that the Romans had yet other terms for sovereignty, summum imperium (ultimate authority) being conspicuous among them. Yet, while the Romans, like the Greeks and the Hebrews, had a conception of supreme authority, Bodin believed that they had not fully understood its implications. Above all, he insisted, they had failed to grasp that the highest power of command was indivisible. It could not be shared among competing powers in the commonwealth.

This meant in effect that, while a state might possess a mixed system of government, it could not be based on a system of ‘shared’ sovereignty. This insight has proved confusing to posterity, above all to admirers of the American constitution: since the United States can be seen as a mixed regime, surely its sovereignty is divided among the different organs of state? This thought was later used to characterize the European Union, too, which is similarly taken to exemplify the ‘pooling’ of sovereignty.

Let us now have a look at the meaning of the difficult words stated above.

WORDMEANING
dominatehave power and influence over.
substantiallyto a great or significant extent;for the most part; essentially.
referenduma general vote by the electorate on a single political question which has been referred to them for a direct decision.
victorioushaving won a victory; triumphant.
campaigna series of military operations intended to achieve a goal, confined to a particular area, or involving a specified type of fighting.
restorationthe action of returning something to a former owner, place, or condition.;the return of a monarch to a throne, a head of state to government, or a regime to power.
sovereigntysupreme power or authority;the authority of a state to govern itself or another state.
misunderstandinga failure to understand something correctly.;a disagreement or quarrel.
possessionthe state of having, owning, or controlling something.;something that is owned or possessed.
debatea formal discussion on a particular matter in a public meeting or legislative assembly, in which opposing arguments are put forward and which usually ends with a vote.;argue about (a subject), especially in a formal manner.
monka member of a religious community of men typically living under vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience.
legalpermitted by law.
conceptionthe action of conceiving a child or of one being conceived.;the forming or devising of a plan or idea.
posterityall future generations of people.;the descendants of a person.
regimea government, especially an authoritarian one.;a system or ordered way of doing things.
conspicuousclearly visible;attracting notice or attention.
characterizedescribe the distinctive nature or features of.;) be typical or characteristic of.

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Memories of Favourite Places # Improve Vocabulary

MEMORIES OF FAVOURITE PLACES

It could be that romantic restaurant, or your favourite park bench. A specific part of the brain seems to be responsible for learning and remembering the precise locations of places that are special to us, research in mice has shown for the first time.

Place cells are neurons that help us map our surroundings, and both mice and humans have such cells in the hippocampus – a brain region vital for learning, memory and navigation.

Nathan Danielson at Columbia University in New York and his colleagues focused on a part of the hippocampus that feeds signals to the rest of the brain, called CA1. They found that in mice, the CA1 layer where general environment maps are learned and stored is different to the one for locations that have an important meaning.

Treadmill test

They discovered this by recording brain activity in the two distinct layers of CA1, using mice placed on a treadmill. The treadmill rotated between six distinctive surface materials – including silky ribbons, green pom-pom fabric and silver glitter masking tape. At all times, the mice were able to lick a sensor to try to trigger the release of drinking water.

During the first phase of the experiment, however, the sensor only worked at random times. The mice formed generalised maps of their experience on the multi-surfaced treadmill, and the team found that these were stored in the superficial layer of CA1.

Then the team activated the sensor only when the mice were on a specific surface, such as the one with silky strips. Mice learned to coordinate their licking with being on the “active” zone, and developed a map that was stored in the deeper layer of CA1.

The team’s conclusion, Danielson says, is that the superficial CA1 layer forms a stable baseline representation of the environment, while the deeper layer maps emotional significance.

“It’s like navigating to your favourite restaurant,” says Danielson. “You need to know the general area, and the wider environment, but the location of the restaurant is of special significance, and incorporates an emotional element,” he says.

#WORDMEANINGSYNONYM
1RomanticOf, or relating to, or of the nature of romance; fanciful; impractical; unrealisticAdventurous, amorous, charming, colorful, corny, dreamy, erotic, exciting, exotic, fanciful, fantastic, fascinating, glamorous, maudlin, mysterious, nostalgic, passionate, tender, utopian, whimsical
2RestaurantAn establishment where meals are served to customersBar, cafeteria, coffee shop, diner, dining room, inn, joint, outlet, saloon, canteen, chophouse, dive, drive-in, eatery, grill, hideaway, lunchroom, pizzeria
3FavoriteA person or thing regarded with special favor or preferenceBeloved, cherished, favored, main, popular, prized, treasured, choice, darling, dear, dearest, intimate, personal, pet, sweetheart
4ColleaguesAn associateAide, ally, assistant, buddy, co-worker, companion, comrade, friend, partner, teammate, auxiliary, chum, coadjutor, cohort, collaborator, compatriot, compeer, confederate, confrere, crony, helper, pal, workmate
5DiscoveredTo notice or realizeDetected, disclosed, exposed, identified, invented, ascertained, disinterred, espied, explored, learned, observed, opened, originated, perceived, presented, recognized, revealed, shown, sighted, spotted, unearthed, unlocked, unveiled
6DistinctDistinguished as not being same; not identical; separateDefinite, noticeable, recognizable, specific, unmistakable, audible, categorical, clean-cut, clear, clear-cut, enunciated, evident, explicit, express, incisive, lucid, manifest, marked, palatable, patent, perspicuous, plain, prescribed, sharp, transparent, trenchant, unambiguous
7TreadmillAn exercise machine that allows the user to walk or run in place, usually on a continuous moving beltChore, drudgery, groove, labor, pace, rote, routine, rut, sweat, task, toil, travail, grub work, hard work, moil
8DistinctiveServing to distinguish; characteristic; distinguishingCool, extraordinary, idiosyncratic, offbeat, original, peculiar, singular, special, weird, characteristic, diacritic, diagnostic, discrete, distinguishing, excellent, far cry, gnarly, individual, like night and day, outstanding, perfect, poles apart, proper, separate
9TriggerTo initiate or precipitate; to become activeBring about, cause, generate, produce, prompt, provoke, set off, spark, start, activate, elicit, give rise to, set in motion
10SuperficialBeing at, on, or near the surface; apparent rather than real.Cursory, frivolous, one-dimensional, perfunctory, silly, sketchy, slight, trivial, apparent, casual, cosmetic, depthless, desultory, empty, evident, exterior, external, flash, flimsy, general, glib, half-baked, hasty, hurried, ignorant, inattentive, warped, tip of the iceberg, ostensible,
11ConclusionThe end or close; final partClosure, completion, consequence, denouement, development, ending, outcome, result, cease, cessation, close, culmination, eventuality, finale, finish, issue, payoff, period, stop, termination, upshot, windup, wrap
12NavigatingTo walk or find one’s way on, in, or acrossCross, cruise, handle, maneuver, operate, sail, steer, captain, direct, drive, helm, journey, pilot, plan, plot, skipper, voyage, head out for, lay the course, ride out
13IncorporatesTo put or introduce into a body or mass as an integral part or partsAbsorb, assimilate, blend, consolidate, cover, embody, fuse, integrate, merge, mix, organize, amalgamate, associate, charter, coalesce, dub, form, imbibe, join, link, pool, start ,subsume, unite, add to, gang up, hook in, put together, tie in
14EmotionalPertaining to or involving emotion; subject to or easily affected by emotionsAffecting, exciting, heated, hysterical, impassioned, moving, nervous, passionate, poignant, sensitive, sentimental, spontaneous, touching, ardent, disturbed, ecstatic, emotive, enthusiastic, excitable, falling apart, fanatical, feeling, fervent fervid, fickle, fiery, heartwarming, histrionic, hot-blooded, impetuous, impulsive, irrational, overwrought, pathetic, responsive, roused, sentient, stirred

 

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Plurals For IELTS Listening

No matter how easy they seem to be, plurals are very important for IELTS listening. Even more, it is quite obvious that you will get questions, answers to which will be plural. This is because IELTS is an English test and will surely check if you can listen for plurals.

There are no half points in IELTS, so even if you write the correct answer but forget the ‘s’ you will be marked wrong. For instance, if the answer is books and you wrote book, you will not get any marks for it. Let us now understand plurals in English.

When you want to change the number of a particular thing, you change them from singular to plural. There are two types of plural nouns –

  1. Regular – If by adding ‘s’ to the singular noun, you are able to change the noun from singular to plural, it is said to be a singular noun. For instance, plural of book is books.
  2. Irregular – The nouns which do not follow the rule of simply adding ‘s’ are known as irregular nouns. Example, plural of fish is fish.

Rules For Making Plural –

  1. Nouns that end in -ch, x, s, z or s-like sounds are made plural by adding es. Example-
    witch witches
    box boxes
    gas gases
    bus buses
  2. Nouns that end in a vowel + y take the letter s. Example – plural of boy is boys.
  3. Nouns that end in a consonant + y drop the y and take ies. Example – plural of baby is babies.
  4. Plurals of nouns that end in f or fe usually change the f sound to a v sound and add s or -es. Example- plural of knife is knives.

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Irregular Plural Nouns

Irregular plural nouns are the ones, which don’t follow the general rule of merely adding a ‘s’. There are no easy ways to remember them, so they generally have to be memorized.

 

Latin-ate Plurals

Words ending in –is usually follow the original Latin form (basis/bases, crisis/crises) for reasons of euphony.

 SINGULAR  PLURAL
 addendum addenda
alga algae
alumnus alumni
amoeba  amoebae
 antenna antennae
bacterium bacteria
 cactus cacti
 curriculum curricula
 datum data
 fungus fungi
 genus genera
 larva larvae
 memorandum memoranda
radix radices
 referendum  referenda
 stigma  stigmas
 stratum  strata
 thesis  theses
 vortex  vortexes
 vertebra  vertebrae

OTHERS

 SINGULAR  PLURAL
 echo  echoes
embargo  embargoes
 tomato tomatoes
 hero  heroes
 torpedo torpedoes
 potato  potatoes
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