The period or as most people know it “full stop” is used in the following cases –
- At the end of sentence
- With parentheses
- With comma
AT THE END OF SENTENCE
This is the most common use of period. It is used to end a declarative sentence, an imperative sentence and a sentence fragment.
Declarative sentence are the sentences that make a statement. For example-
All the students decided to go by train.
Imperative sentence are those that make a command. For example-
Get out of the room.
A sentence fragment is an incomplete sentence. For example-
Who is responsible for the chaos in the class? The students themselves.
A period is used to indicate an abbreviation. Example-
Ms. Avishi is a great doctor.
- A sentence ending in an abbreviation does not need a second period. Example – The seat has reserved for the M.L.A.
- If a sentence ends with a abbreviation but requires a punctuation mark except period, the appropriate mark must be put. Example- where did avantika did her Ph.D.?
When a sentence ends in quotation mark, a single period ends both quotation and the sentence. And this period is used inside the quotation mark. Example-
He said,”I can do anything that I want.”
When a sentence ends with a quotation mark but requires a final question mark, no period is used. For example- Did he really say,”I hate you”?
When the statement inside the quotation mark end with question mark, there is no need of a period. Example- Arun went on to ask,”Do you really want to do it?”
No matter the exclamation mark is required within a quotation mark or afterit, no period is used.
Example- What a terrible choice was made by ” the board “!
By now we know what Steve mean when he says, ” you are idiot!”
Period may or may not be used inside a parentheses depending on the context. For example-
The economy of country in 1998 (see India Times Report, 1998) was at the verge of a steep slowdown.
The economy of country in 1998 was at the verge of a steep slowdown (see India Times Report,slowdown).
The economy of country in 1998 was at the verge of a steep slowdown.(see India Times Report, 1998.)
When a sentence includes an abbreviation that immediately precedes a comma, the period required in the abbreviation is retained.
Example – We will welcome Arun Rathore, M.A., to the class in next hour.