Learning punctuation

punctuations are the most important component of English. They allow the reader to better understand what the writer is trying to say. For example, consider the following sentence-
She is a really nice girl said Avinash

When reading the sentence one cannot make out when does the reader need to give pauses or are there any.
One has correctly said that punctuations bring out the real emotions of the writer.

While giving the IELTS exam it is very important that you are able to tell clearly with words what you want to express!

There are different kinds of punctuations that are available and can be used in English. They are –

  1. Period
  2. Question mark
  3. Exclamation point
  4. Comma
  5. Semi colon
  6. Colon
  7. Parentheses
  8. Brackets
  9. Quotation marks
  10. Dash
  11. Hyphen
  12. Italics
  13. Ellipses
  14. Apostrophe

The better you know how to use then, more are the chances of getting a high band in IELTS. So, in the “Learn punctuation” series to come you will learn how to use the different punctuation mmarks to make sure you write effectively.


The Period

The period or as most people know it “full stop” is used in the following cases –

  1. At the end of sentence
  2. Abbreviations
  3. Quotations
  4. With parentheses
  5. With comma


This is the most common use of period. It is used to end a declarative sentence, an imperative sentence and a sentence fragment.

Declarative sentence are the sentences that make a statement. For example-

All the students decided to go by train.

Imperative sentence are those that make a command. For example-

Get out of the room.

A sentence fragment is an incomplete sentence. For example-

Who is responsible for the chaos in the class? The students themselves.

In abbreviations

A period is used to indicate an abbreviation. Example-

Ms. Avishi is a great doctor.


  1. A sentence ending in an abbreviation does not need a second period. Example – The seat has reserved for the M.L.A.
  2. If a sentence ends with a abbreviation but requires a punctuation mark except period, the appropriate mark must be put. Example- where did avantika did her Ph.D.?


When a sentence ends in quotation mark, a single period ends both quotation and the sentence. And this period is used inside the quotation mark. Example-

He said,”I can do anything that I want.”

When a sentence ends with a quotation mark but requires a final question mark, no period is used. For example- Did he really say,”I hate you”?

When the statement inside the quotation mark end with question mark, there is no need of a period. Example- Arun went on to ask,”Do you really want to do it?”

No matter the exclamation mark is required within a quotation mark or afterit, no period is used.

Example- What a terrible choice was made by ” the board “!

By now we know what Steve mean when he says, ” you are idiot!”


Period  may or may not be used inside a parentheses depending on the context. For example-

The economy of country in 1998 (see India Times Report, 1998) was at the verge of a steep slowdown.

The economy of country in 1998 was at the verge of a steep slowdown (see India Times Report,slowdown).

The economy of country in 1998 was at the verge of a steep slowdown.(see India Times Report, 1998.)


When a sentence includes an abbreviation that immediately precedes a comma, the period required in the abbreviation is retained.

Example – We will welcome Arun Rathore, M.A., to the class in next hour.