The idea of taking back ‘control’ has come to dominate political debate in Britain. Much of the discussion has centred on the relationship between the United Kingdom and the European Union (EU). Indeed, the aim of achieving control substantially shaped the referendum on Britain’s membership of the EU. For the victorious Leave campaign, the promise of this kind of power resides in the restoration of sovereignty. Yet the analysis is based on a misunderstanding. While the future of Britain outside the EU is obviously hard to determine, one thing is certain: the possession of sovereignty does not guarantee the exercise of control.
The modern debate about sovereignty began with the French thinker Jean Bodin (1530-96). Having joined the Carmelite brotherhood as a monk in his early manhood, Bodin was released from his vows in 1549 and then opted to study law at the University of Toulouse. Much of his education involved attention to Roman law and included the humanistic study of classical texts in political and legal philosophy. It was out of these materials that Bodin developed his conception of supreme power.
In his most famous work, the Six Books of the Commonwealth, which originally appeared in French in 1576, Bodin presented a definition of sovereignty. He claimed that it was ‘the absolute and perpetual power of a commonwealth, which the Latins call maiestas [majesty]’. Later in his text, Bodin made clear that the Romans had yet other terms for sovereignty, summum imperium (ultimate authority) being conspicuous among them. Yet, while the Romans, like the Greeks and the Hebrews, had a conception of supreme authority, Bodin believed that they had not fully understood its implications. Above all, he insisted, they had failed to grasp that the highest power of command was indivisible. It could not be shared among competing powers in the commonwealth.
This meant in effect that, while a state might possess a mixed system of government, it could not be based on a system of ‘shared’ sovereignty. This insight has proved confusing to posterity, above all to admirers of the American constitution: since the United States can be seen as a mixed regime, surely its sovereignty is divided among the different organs of state? This thought was later used to characterize the European Union, too, which is similarly taken to exemplify the ‘pooling’ of sovereignty.
Let us now have a look at the meaning of the difficult words stated above.
have power and influence over.
to a great or significant extent;for the most part; essentially.
a general vote by the electorate on a single political question which has been referred to them for a direct decision.
having won a victory; triumphant.
a series of military operations intended to achieve a goal, confined to a particular area, or involving a specified type of fighting.
the action of returning something to a former owner, place, or condition.;the return of a monarch to a throne, a head of state to government, or a regime to power.
supreme power or authority;the authority of a state to govern itself or another state.
a failure to understand something correctly.;a disagreement or quarrel.
the state of having, owning, or controlling something.;something that is owned or possessed.
a formal discussion on a particular matter in a public meeting or legislative assembly, in which opposing arguments are put forward and which usually ends with a vote.;argue about (a subject), especially in a formal manner.
a member of a religious community of men typically living under vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience.
permitted by law.
the action of conceiving a child or of one being conceived.;the forming or devising of a plan or idea.
all future generations of people.;the descendants of a person.
a government, especially an authoritarian one.;a system or ordered way of doing things.
clearly visible;attracting notice or attention.
describe the distinctive nature or features of.;) be typical or characteristic of.
iPhone7 has been launched and there has been so much buzz about the phone that it is inevitable that one does not knows about it. In today’s reading section, we are going to look at a article that talk about the sales of Apple and how they increased with the coming of iPhone7. With this article, we hope to learn some vocabulary about business and how things actually work in the Business lifestyle. The article has been taken from – http://time.com/money/4489600/iphone-7-preorders/?xid=homepage
U.S. wireless1 carriers Sprint and T-Mobile US said on Tuesday they received strong pre-orders2 for Apple’s iPhone 7, sending shares of the world’s most valuable listed company up 3 percent.
Sprint said pre-orders were up nearly four times, compared to last year. Pre-orders also rose nearly four times at T-Mobile, compared with its next most popular iPhone.
However, the companies did not disclose3 specific sales numbers. Pre-orders started on Friday.
Details about sales of the new iPhone are scarce4 after Apple announced last week it would not release weekend sales data, saying the number was more a reflection of supply than demand.
“While the iPhone 7 update is more revolutionary5 than evolutionary6, we believe investors7 could consider these strong early pre-order indications8 as being reflective9 of the impact10 of Apple’s significant11 iPhone installed12 base expansion13 over the past few years,” Stifel analyst Aaron Rakers said in a note.
Rival carriers AT&T and Verizon Communications were not immediately available for comment.
Apple’s shares14 were up 2.8 percent at $108.19 in morning trading15. Up to Monday’s close, they had fallen 2.1 percent since the iPhone 7 was launched on Wednesday.
Using radio, microwaves, etc. (as opposed to wires or cables) to transmit signals.
Place an order for (an item) before it is available for purchase.
Make (secret or new information) known.;allow (something hidden) to be seen.
Insufficient for the demand.
Involving or causing a complete or dramatic change.;engaged in or promoting political revolution.
A gradual process in which something changes into a different and usually more complex or better form.
An investor is any person who commits capital with the expectation of financial returns.
A sign or piece of information that indicates something.;a symptom that suggests certain medical treatment is necessary.
Pproviding a reflection; capable of reflecting light or other radiation.;relating to or characterized by deep thought; thoughtful.
The action of one object coming forcibly into contact with another.;a marked effect or influence.
Sufficiently great or important to be worthy of attention; noteworthy.;having a particular meaning; indicative of something
Place or fix (equipment or machinery) in position ready for use.;
The action of becoming larger or more extensive.
A part or portion of a larger amount which is divided among a number of people, or to which a number of people contribute.
The action or activity of buying and selling goods and services.
IELTS WRITING TASK 1
You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.
The table below shows the number of medals won by the top ten countries in the 2016 Rio Olympic Games.
Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where relevant.
Write at least 150 words.
2016 Rio Olympic Games Medal Table
Republic of Korea
Source: Rio Olympics website
The table provides information about the medal standings of the top ten nations in the 2016 Rio Olympics.
Looking at the details, the USA topped the list with a total of 121 medals. This comprised of 46 gold, 37 silver and 38 bronze medals. Notably, these figures were the highest as compared to any other country for all the three categories of medals. The medal haul of the second place holder, Great Britain, was significantly smaller than that of America, only 67.
China, on the other hand, won total 70 medals, three more than the GB. However, it slipped to the third place since it had fewer gold medals in comparison to the GB. The fourth position was grabbed by the Russian Federation with 19 gold, 18 silver and 19 bronze medals. Interestingly, no other country had the privilege of winning almost equal number of medals in each category.
But, there are nations whose total medal tallies were almost equal. The fifth, sixth and seventh place holders, Germany, Japan and France had roughly the same total, 42, 41 and 42 respectively. Whilst, the summative figures were quite different for the eighth, ninth and tenth rankers (21, 28 and 29 in the order).
Overall, it is clear that the USA was the highest achiever in the 2016 Olympics, followed by the Great Britain and China. The differences in the type of medals won by the listed countries changed their rankings.