You must have seen picture and movies of volcanoes erupting (when a volcano erupts or burning rocks, smoke etc. are erupted the burning rocks etc. are thrown out from the volcano), but do you know what a volcano actually is? To put it very simply, a volcano is a mountain that has a hole or vent(an opening that allows air, gas or liquid to pass out of or into a room, building, container etc.) that leads to reservoirs(a large amount ) of molten or liquid rock deep below the earth’s surface. As the pressure builds up inside the earth, eruptions occur. Gases and molted(heated to a very high temperature so that it becomes liquid) rock shoot up through the opening, and spill over, or fill the air with lava fragments(a small part of something that has broken off or comes from something larger).
Eruptions can cause sideways blasts, lava flows, hot ash flows, mudslides, avalanches, failing ash and floods. Volcano eruptions have been known to knock down entire forests. An erupting volcano can trigger(to make something happen suddenly)tsunamis too. Volcanic eruptions mould and shape the earth’s structure. They give rise to new land masses, and constantly create changes in the Earth’s atmosphere.
The word volcano comes from the roman god of fire, Vulcan. Vulcan was said to have had a forge(a place where objects are made by heating and shaping pieces of metal, especially one where a black smith works)- which is a place to melt and shape iron on the little island of volcano in the Mediterranean Sea, off Sicily. The island was the site of an active volcano in ancient times. Centuries ago, the people living in this area thought that the hot lava fragments and clouds of the dust erupting from a volcano came from Vulcan’s forge as he beat out thunderbolts for Jupiter, king of the gods, and weapons for mars, the god of war.
Do the following statements agree with the information given in the passage?
In boxes 1- in your answer sheet, write
TRUE if the statement agrees with the information
FALSE if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if there information on this.
- Volcano is a phenomenon of eruption which can occur in any mountain.
- Eruptions occur when the pressure inside the earth’s surface increases.
- When lava erupts, only gases erupt out of the vent in the rock.
- After a volcanic eruptions, usually new landmasses are created and changes in Earth’s atmosphere are seen.
Anything which occupies( fill) space and has mass is called matter. Air and water; hydrogen and oxygen; sugar and sand; silver and steel; copper and coal; iron and wood; ice and alcohol; milk and oil; rocks and minerals; are all different kinds of matter, because all of them occupy space and mass.
If we look around us, we can see a large number of things of different shapes, sizes and textures. Many of these things are used by us in our everyday life. For example, we eat food, drink water, breathe in air and wear clothes. We use able and chair for studying and bed for sleeping. We also see other human beings, various animals, plants and trees around us. The things like food, water, air, clothes, table chair, human beings, animals, plants, trees etc. are all examples of matter.
The only conditions for ‘something’ to be matter are that it should occupy space and have mass. Now, the things like friendship, love, affection, hatred, good manners, do not occupy space and do not have mass. So, from the point of view of chemistry, things like affection, hatred are not considered matter.
Matter can be classified in a number of ways. Ancient Indian philosophers said that all matter, living or non-living was made up of five basic elements: air, earth, fire, sky and water. Modern day scientists classify matter in two ways: on the basis of its physical properties and on the basis of its chemical properties. On the basis of physical properties, matter can be classified as solids, liquids and gases. On the basis of chemical properties, matter is classified as elements, compounds and mixtures.
Source- science for ninth class, S.Chand.
Complete the notes below.
Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each answer.
Something that possesses (1)___________ and (2)__________ is called matter. Matter is found in different (3) _____________, (4) _________ and (5) ____________. It gets classified in two ways. According to Indian philosophers matter was made up of five elements. However, the modern day scientists differ from tem and classify matter in (6)______ ways. On the basis of(7) _____________ and the basis of (8) ___________. Matter is of (9)________, (10)___________ and (11)___________ types on the basis of chemical properties and (12) _________, (13)______________ and (14)__________ on the basis of physical properties.
- chemical properties
- physical properties
Albert Einstein, hailed (to describe somebody or something as being very good or special, especially in newspapers etc.) as the greatest (extremely good and therefore admired by people) physicist (a scientist* who studies physics) of the 20th century, found the relation between energy, mass and the speed of light. That marked (made a noticeable or distinct impact) a milestone (a very important stage or event in the development of something) in human progress. He defined the special theory of relativity in 1905 and, ten years later, the General Theory of Relativity. He thus enlarged (to make something bigger) Sir Isaac Newton’s understanding of the universe. Stephen hawking, a British physicist, chose the growing field for the further study. He came up with a theory about the origin of the universe. He said that the universe began with a big bang. He predicted (to say that something will happen in the future) that the universe would end up as a huge black hole.
What is a black hole? A black hole is far out in space. It is dark because it does not reflect light, but sucks light in. You can look upon a black hole as a light guzzler (a car that needs lot of petrol). But it is not called by that name. Names often end up as misnomers (a name or a word that is not appropriate or accurate). Think of a sun Ayana with a squint (a condition of the eye muscle which causes eye to look in a different direction) or a Manohar who is as ugly (unpleasant to look at) as a toad (an unpleasant person). No black hole has a hole. In reality, it is tightly packed with matter and hence very dense (difficult to see through).
* Scientist is someone who studies one or more of natural science
Use the words given below to answer the following questions-
Hailed, greatest, physicist, mark, milestone, enlarged, predicted, guzzler, misnomers, squint, ugly, dense
The form of the words can be changed
- Once there was women, all naked, lying on the road, with ants wrapped all over her body. She was crying for help, but no one else did, except a lady, later came to known as mother Teresa. Which word will you use for Mother Teresa?
- Steve jobs is often regarded as the father of the digital revolution. He had a huge impact on youngsters and changed the way people chose their profession. What did he left behind?
- I am going to hide behind the wall, because no one can see me through it. From the given words which word can be used to describe the wall?
- When she won the Nobel Prize for peace, the entire newspapers were filled with information about her. Who she was, what she liked and how she became what she became. What did newspapers did?
- Alice loves science and particularly physics. She often says she wants to know everything about physics. What do you think Alice is most likely to become in future?
- Tanesha had many failures in his life. She got poor grades in the beginning and was even sexually exploited but falling in love changed her life forever. What did love meant to Tanesha?
- She never learns answers, all she does is understand the main concepts and expands them into full answers. What does she does?
- Alex was so sure that she will get 98% in boards that she went on to tell it confidently to others. What was Alex doing?
- I lose a lot of money because of my old car. The engine is so old that now it needs more petrol than others. What will you call my car?
- No matter what my name has ever been, people have mostly called me as either mad or mental or psycho. What are these different words people have called me by?
- That black and white dress irritates me because of its loud colour. So, how is the dress for me?
- She mostly speaks abusive language and it becomes quite irritating to be with her. What kind of a person is she?
- She cannot play archery as well, because of the fact that she looks in different direction. What problem is she facing?
Learning how to read in English is the first step one can take to achieve a high band in IELTS. This goes especially for the native speakers. Now, if on the first day of preparing for IELTS you go about and start reading an academic journal, chances are high that you will completely lose your brain and in worse case stop preparing for IELTS altogether.
This is not something that British council or IDP wants and I am sure that this is not something that you will like yourself. Giving up is not the first choice of anyone.
So, how can one improve their reading skills? The only way you can do it, is move step by step. Take a firm step and move forward only if you have already taken the previous step with your entire heart out.
With this article, we are now beginning a series of post that will help you to improve your reading skills day by day. The course is free and frankly speaking, if you read the posts every day, level by level, I can assure you a 7.5+ band in IELTS.
So, what is the course and how is it going to go about? Well, there is no rocket science or new inventions going about here. The posts that will be published under this section, will be the ones that have already been published. So, what is the point of it? Well, the posts will be thoroughly examined and will be divided into levels, helping you to not fall in the trap of fear of English.
This will be taken from story books, magazines, novels, scientific journals, reports i.e. the stuff that you will find questions from, in the reading section of your IELTS.
There are four levels to this course-
Level 1 – This level will have posts from secondary level English books, content that is usually published in the local English newspapers. The content size will be 150-200 words.
Level 2 – This level will have articles from magazines, international newspapers, content that a graduate tends to find in his/her book. The content size will be 250-500 words.
Level 3 – This level will have extracts from scientific magazines, books on topics such as sociology or phycology etc. The content size will be 500-1100 words.
And don’t you worry, there won’t be just posts, the difficult words will be explained saving you from the hassle of looking for dictionary every time, you wish to read.
Remember, a wall can be built only if you think about placing the brick in hand perfectly and not get lost in the size and the complexities of building the wall.