IELTS Practice Reading # New Nation

The article below has been taken from TIME. You can read the entire article by clicking on the link. Today, we are looking at a part of it and try to cover the vocabulary that we come across.

Movies, and sometimes the people who make them, work on us at strange, subterranean levels we can’t even begin to comprehend. That’s why, even though relatively few people have seen it, few know quite how to feel about Nate Parker’sBirth of a Nation, which premiered here at the Toronto International Film Festival on Friday to a rousing response from the audience, some seven months after its sensational Sundance unveiling. Parker’s debut picture—about Nat Turner, the enslaved African American who led a violent revolt against slave owners in 1831—is distinctive for one notable reason: Movies about the history of blacks in this country are rarely made, and if you rule out the usual suspects like Spike Lee and Lee Daniels—and count back to the days before 12 Years a Slave and Selma—they have rarely been made by people of color. But months ahead of its release in the United States, in October, The Birth of a Nation has also become infamous for a thornier reason: In 1999, while they were students at Penn State University, Parker and his roommate and wrestling teammate Jean Celestin—cowriter of The Birth of a Nation—were accused of raping a fellow student. Parker was acquitted. Celestin was found guilty, though the verdict was overturned. Their accuser committed suicide in 2012. In the context of this terrible blot, should Parker be lauded as a filmmaker? Should people show tacit support of him and his actions by seeing the film? Is his work, or his view on anything, in any way trustworthy?

WORDMEANING
 strange unusual or surprising; difficult to understand or explain.
 subterranean existing, occurring, or done under the earth's surface.
 comprehend grasp mentally; understand.
 relatively in relation, comparison, or proportion to something else.
 premiered give the first performance of.;(of a musical or theatrical work or a film) have its first performance
 rousing exciting; stirring;(of a fire) blazing strongly.
 response a verbal or written answer.;a reaction to something.
 audience the assembled spectators or listeners at a public event such as a play, film, concert, or meeting.;a formal interview with a person in authority.
 sensational causing great public interest and excitement.;very good indeed; very impressive or attractive.
 unveiling remove a veil or covering from, in particular uncover (a new monument or work of art) as part of a public ceremony.;show or announce publicly for the first time.
 enslaved make (someone) a slave.;cause (someone) to lose their freedom of choice or action.
 violent using or involving physical force intended to hurt, damage, or kill someone or something;(especially of an emotion or a destructive natural force) very strong or power
 revolt take violent action against an established government or ruler; rebel.;cause to feel disgust.
 slave a person who is the legal property of another and is forced to obey them.;work excessively hard.
 distinctive characteristic of one person or thing, and so serving to distinguish it from other
 notable worthy of attention or notice; remarkable.;a famous or important person
 thornier having many thorns or thorn bushes.;causing distress, difficulty, or trouble.
 accused a person or group of people who are charged with or on trial for a crime.
 acquitted free (someone) from a criminal charge by a verdict of not guilty.
.
conduct oneself or perform in a specified way.
 verdict a decision on an issue of fact in a civil or criminal case or an inquest.
 overturned tip (something) over so that it is on its side or upside down.;abolish, invalidate, or reverse (a previous system, decision, situation, etc.)
 blot a dark mark or stain made by ink, paint, dirt, etc.;a procedure in which proteins or nucleic acids separated on a gel are transferred directly to an immobilizing medium for identification.
 tacit understood or implied without being stated.

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IELTS Reading Sample # iPhone7

iPhone7 has been launched and there has been so much buzz about the phone that it is inevitable that one does not knows about it. In today’s reading section, we are going to look at a article that talk about the sales of Apple and how they increased with the coming of iPhone7. With this article, we hope to learn some vocabulary about business and how things actually work in the Business lifestyle. The article has been taken from – http://time.com/money/4489600/iphone-7-preorders/?xid=homepage

iPhone7

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U.S. wireless1 carriers Sprint and T-Mobile US said on Tuesday they received strong pre-orders2 for Apple’s iPhone 7, sending shares of the world’s most valuable listed company up 3 percent.

Sprint said pre-orders were up nearly four times, compared to last year. Pre-orders also rose nearly four times at T-Mobile, compared with its next most popular iPhone.

However, the companies did not disclose3 specific sales numbers. Pre-orders started on Friday.

Details about sales of the new iPhone are scarce4 after Apple announced last week it would not release weekend sales data, saying the number was more a reflection of supply than demand.

“While the iPhone 7 update is more revolutionary5 than evolutionary6, we believe investors7 could consider these strong early pre-order indications8 as being reflective9 of the impact10 of Apple’s significant11 iPhone installed12 base expansion13 over the past few years,” Stifel analyst Aaron Rakers said in a note.

Rival carriers AT&T and Verizon Communications were not immediately available for comment.

Apple’s shares14 were up 2.8 percent at $108.19 in morning trading15. Up to Monday’s close, they had fallen 2.1 percent since the iPhone 7 was launched on Wednesday.

SrWORDMEANING
1wirelessUsing radio, microwaves, etc. (as opposed to wires or cables) to transmit signals.
2pre-ordersPlace an order for (an item) before it is available for purchase.
3discloseMake (secret or new information) known.;allow (something hidden) to be seen.
4scarceInsufficient for the demand.
5revolutionaryInvolving or causing a complete or dramatic change.;engaged in or promoting political revolution.
6evolutionaryA gradual process in which something changes into a different and usually more complex or better form.
7investorsAn investor is any person who commits capital with the expectation of financial returns.
8indicationsA sign or piece of information that indicates something.;a symptom that suggests certain medical treatment is necessary.
9reflectivePproviding a reflection; capable of reflecting light or other radiation.;relating to or characterized by deep thought; thoughtful.
10impactThe action of one object coming forcibly into contact with another.;a marked effect or influence.
11significantSufficiently great or important to be worthy of attention; noteworthy.;having a particular meaning; indicative of something
12installedPlace or fix (equipment or machinery) in position ready for use.;
13expansionThe action of becoming larger or more extensive.
14sharesA part or portion of a larger amount which is divided among a number of people, or to which a number of people contribute.
15tradingThe action or activity of buying and selling goods and services.

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Village That Inspired Tagore # Improve Vocabulary

Source : National Geographic Traveler

Download the text with meaning for print – The File

The Village That Inspired Tagore

Rabindranath Tagore often holidayed in Mongpu, a quiet Himalayan village about 1.5hr from Darjeeling, during the last three years of his life. So it was only natural that photographer Dhritiman Mukherjee and Bollywood music director Shantanu Moitra visited Mongpu—and their Bengali heritage—when they were on the West Bengal leg of their #100DaysInHimalayas project. Between February and December 2016, the duo will make a series of trips in the Himalayas covering reaches running from Kashmir to Arunachal Pradesh, and into the neighbouring foothills of Nepal and Bhutan—and they’re taking National Geographic Traveller Indiaalong for the ride.

On a day trip to Mongpu, they visited the bungalow where Tagore stayed at the invitation of his protégée, the author Maitreyi Devi. The house overlooks a cinchona plantation and quinine factory, once managed by Devi’s husband. On his last visit in 1940, Tagore fell very ill and had to be shifted to Kolkata. He passed away the next year, leaving behind several possessions at the Mongpu residence, which was later turned into a museum by the government, and named Rabindra Bhavan.

Among Rabindra Bhavan’s display are artworks, handwritten documents, and most interestingly, furniture designed by Tagore and carved by his son, Rathindranath Tagore. Moitra and Mukherjee saw Tagore’s bed, which has an inclined headrest said to have tackled his respiratory problem. His mahogany writing desk and chair, said to be designed to support his back, faces a window with a tranquil view of the lush, hilly landscape that the nature-loving writer treasured. For Mukherjee, the window by which Tagore wrote provided the biggest emotional connection. “He had a vast view in front, and that landscape is intact,” the photographer said, “It’s very green, there are lots of trees; it’s at the edge of the snow.”

Like many visitors at this memorial to a literary giant, Moitra was dismayed by the broken windowpanes, cracked walls, dented doors and inadequate security. “We could have walked out with any of Tagore’s belongings,” he said. And yet, much of it remains. The place may be unkempt but the legacy of Tagore’s visits is still strong in the village.

WORD MEANING SYNONYM
1.       Photographer A person who takes photographs, especially as a job. Paparazzo, photojournalist, shutterbug
2.       Heritage Property that is or may be inherited; and inheritance;

A special or individual possession; an allotted portion

Ancestry, culture, custom, legacy, right, tradition, bequest, birthright, convention, dowry, endowment, estate, fashion, inheritance, lot, patrimony, portion, share
3.       Cinchona An evergreen South American tree or shrub with fragrant flowers, cultivated for its bark
4.       Plantation An estate on which crops such as coffee, sugar, and tobacco are grown;

Colonization or settlement of emigrants, especially of English and then Scottish families in Ireland in 16th -17th centuries under government sponsorship.

Estate, homestead, orchard, ranch, farmstead, hacienda, vineyard
5.       Protegee A person who is guided and supported by an older and more experienced or influential person Applicant, buyer, consumer, patient, patron, shopper, believer, chump, dependent, disciple, follower, front, head, mark, purchaser, walk-in, ward
6.       Quinine A bitter crystalline compound present in cinchona bark, used as a tonic formerly as an antimalarial drug. Blame, castigation, censure, curse, defamation, derision, hosing, insults, invective, knifing, libel, obloquy, opprobrium, put-down, reproach, revilement, scolding, signifying, slander, swearing, tirade, upbraiding, vilification, vituperation
7.       Possessions The state of having, owning, or controlling something.

Something that is owned or possessed.

Custody, dominion, hold, occupancy, occupation, proprietary, retention, tenancy, tenure, title
8.       Residence A person’s home, especially a large and impressive one. Apartment, condo, dwelling, hall, headquarters, home, house, mansion, palace, abode, address, co-op, domicile, habitation, hole, household, inhabitancy, inhabitation, lodging, manor, occupancy, occupation, rack, roof, roost, seat, settlement, villa
9.       Artworks Illustrations, photographs, or other non-textual material prepared for inclusion in a publication. Art, artwork, picture, piece, portrait, watercolor, oil
10.   Carved Cut in order to produce and object, design or inscription. Chiseled, engraved, sculpted, carven, chased, cut, etched, furrowed, graved, graven, grooved, hewed, hewn, modeled, scissored, slashed, sliced, whittled
11.   Tackled Make determined efforts to deal with ( a problem or difficult task) Accept, begin, deal with, engage in, take up, try, undertake, work on, attack, attempt, essay, launch
12.   Mahogany Hard reddish-brown timber from a tropical tree, used for quality furniture.

A tropical tree which produces mahogany.

Amber, bay, beige, bister, brick, bronze, buff, chestnut, chocolate, cinnamon, cooca, coffee, copper, drab, dust, ecru, fawn, ginger, hazel, henna, khaki, nut, ochre, puce, russet, rust, sepia, sorrel, tan, toast, umber
13.   Tranquil Free from disturbance; calm Amicable, balmy, calm, easygoing, gentle, mild, pastoral, placid, restful, sedate, serene, sober, stable, tame, temperate
14.   Intact Not damaged or impaired in any way; complete Flawless, perfect, unblemished, unbroken, unharmed, unhurt, unscathed, untouched
15.   Memorial A statue or structure established to remind people of a person or event; a statement of facts, especially as the basis of a petition. Remembering, canonizing, celebrative, commemoratory, consecrating, consecrative, dedicatory, deifying, enshrining, in tribute, memorializing, monumental
16.   Inadequate Lacking the quality or quantity required; insufficient for a purpose Deficient, faulty, incompetent, incomplete, incomplete, lacking, meager, poor, scarce, sketchy, skimpy, unequal, weak
17.   Unkempt Having an untidy or disheveled appearance. Bedraggled, dilapidated, disheveled, grubby, grungy, messy, neglected, rumpled, scruffy, shaggy.

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IELTS Reading Sample Question # Big Pharma

 

READING PASSAGE 1 

You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1–13, which are based on Reading Passage 1 below.

Big Pharma Is So 2015. Welcome to the Era of Big Software

KELLOGG’S USES A cartoon tiger and elves to sell $14 billion dollars worth of refined carbohydrates each year. But this calorie-laden corporation was once an idealistic startup. Created by the eccentric Dr. John Harvey Kellogg, Corn Flakes were intended as a health food that made it easier for the masses to adopt a vegetarian lifestyle. Kellogg’s was the Soylent of its day.

Today, Pfizer is a $188 billion dollar drug conglomerate. But there was a time when the biggest of “Big Pharma” companies was a lot like today’s Young Turks. At the time of its founding in 1849, when it produced small batch citric acid, the company was based in Williamsburg, Brooklyn, and its founder favored funky facial hair.

These companies that we now think of as the epitomes of “Big Food” and “Big Pharma” were once humble startups. But as success beget success, they managed to dominate their markets for over a century. Over the next hundred years, we could see the same thing happen with the most high-minded tech of tech companies. Google, Amazon, Apple, and Facebook could grow to dominate the market in the same way Pfizer and Kellogg’s have dominated theirs. We could be witnessing the dawn of a new era: “Big Software.”

The Future of Apps

Pfizer and the majority of the top 25 global pharma companies were founded in the period between 1849 and 1901. Notable companies sprung up in the 20th century, but to put it in perspective, as many top pharma companies were formed prior to 1781 as after 1981.

First mover advantage is debatable, but it is clear there is value to being early to an emerging industry. These companies built solid products, established distribution channels, and value accrued to their businesses as a result. Regulation also played a role. In 1906, the US Government established the Food and Drug Administration, and the increased regulatory scrutiny to ensure safer medicines made it to market, but this oversight also made it harder for upstart companies to enter the market.

This pattern is seen in most industries as they develop—food, automobiles, banks, TV network—all followed a similar pattern. A new technology, distribution channel, or demographic trend created a boom of startups. In relatively short order, a small group of companies enjoyed outsize success and bought their former competitors, or otherwise went on to dominate their industries. Market dynamics and regulations helped to cement the winners.

This could happen with tech as well. Intel was founded in 1968, Snapchat in 2011—roughly 50 years apart. Don’t be surprised if our great grandchildren still use Google products 100 years from now.

We’ve seen so much upheaval in tech over the last few decades that there’s always an assumption that past is prologue. Apple is doomed to lose to Android because it failed to embrace “openness.” Friendster and Myspace became uncool, making it a fait accompli that Facebook is doomed to do so once the patina of popularity wears off.

Plenty of big tech companies have failed, but many of those examples can be chalked up to the immaturity of the tech stack, a lack of infrastructure to support a web-based business model, e.g. AdTech, or even just poor management.

Digital Durability

Paul Graham’s essay, “The Refragmentation,” makes a case that the era of big companies is coming to a close. Don’t be so sure. Craig Newmark and a team of hippies in the Haight upended print journalism across the country by decoupling classifieds from reporting. For the last decade, hundreds of millions of dollars have been invested in companies chipping away at Craigslist’s services.

Airbnb alone is worth tens of billions of dollars. Yet Craigslist, with its laissez-faire approach to product improvement, remains the number 11 site in the United States. The value of liquidity in a marketplace, often earned by solving a problem early on, shouldn’t be underestimated. Can you imagine the longevity that Google, Apple, Facebook, and Amazon will have?

How certain are you that a company will be able to upend Apple’s manufacturing prowess? Who will be able to outthink Google’s massive machine learning engine? Amazon has spent 20 years building the foundation of a retail empire that could last a century. These are not inconsequential advantages.

Yahoo would seem to be a counterexample, but looked at another way, it’s amazing that a company whose entire raison d’être disappeared in 2007 has been able to survive for 20 years without a clear direction and saddled with a series of CEOs who were ill suited to the business.

Instead of assuming these companies will fail, entertain the alternate position. Imagine we’ve just seen the establishment of companies that will dominate their industries for the next century, in much the way that General Electric, Ford, and Disney have only become more powerful and influential in the absence of their iconic founders. Some might view the age of “Big Software” as a bad development. In fact, this could be an amazing development for entrepreneurs and investors alike.

Accelerating Innovation

Conglomeration hasn’t hurt entrepreneurship in pharma or food. In fact, it has accelerated it. In the biotech world, it’s not uncommon for a startup to go from drawing board to multi-billion dollar IPO in a few short years. Editas was founded in 2013, IPO’d in 2015, and currently has a market cap in excess of $1B. In the first half of 2015, there were six biotech IPOs in Boston, and the average employee count was just 17.5. This analogy isn’t perfect—bits and biologics have big differences—but the general trend is instructive. Mature industries tamp down outlier exits, but make entrepreneurship more efficient.

big pharma

Questions 1-11

Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1?

In boxes 1–7 on your answer sheet, write

TRUE                          if the statement agrees with the information

FALSE                        if the statement contradicts the information

NOT GIVEN               if there is no information on this

  1. The reason behind creating Corn Flakes was to drift the masses towards a vegetarian lifestyle.
  2. In the founding year of Pfizer i.e. 1850, Pfizer produced critic acid.
  3. Majority of the global pharma companies were built in the late 1800.
  4. The increased regulatory pressure on pharma companies led to the fall of Pfizer.
  5. The failure of apple can be devoted to the success of Android.
  6. It was in the year 1968 that Intel was found and then Snapchat in 2012.
  7. The only reason behind the failure of companies is AdTech.

Questions 8–13

Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D.

Write the correct letter in boxes 8–13 on your answer sheet.

8. Who has acknowledged that the era of big companies will be soon overlaped by something else?

                 A. Paul Graham

                 B.Paul Grahem

                 C.Craig Newmark

                 D.Dr. John Harvey Kellogg

9. What is the ranking of Craglist in United States?

               A. 10

               B.112

               C.11

              D. 42

10. In which year was Editas founded?

            A. 2010

            B.2011

            C.1932

            D.2013

11. What different dating sites are owned by Match Group?

             A.Tinder

             B. OkCupid

             C.Plenty Of Fish

             D.All of the above

ANSWERS

1. True

2. False

3. True

4. Not given

5. False

6. False

7. False

8. A

 9. C

10.D

11.D

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